Chest. 1992;102(5):1313-1314. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1313
Chest. 1992;102(5):1314-1315. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1314
Chest. 1992;102(5):1315-1316. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1315
Chest. 1992;102(5):1316-1317. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1316
Topics: empyema
Chest. 1992;102(5):1317-1318. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1317
Topics: smoke
Chest. 1992;102(5):1319-1322. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1319

Photodynamic therapy has been used since 1980 at our institution for the management of cancer of the tracheobronchial tree. We identified 13 patients (14 cancers) who were thought to be surgical candidates but who elected to have photodynamic therapy. Thirteen cancers (93 percent) had a complete response to hematoporphyrin-derivative phototherapy. Ten cancers (71 percent) showed a complete response after single treatment, and three (21 percent) required a second course of therapy to achieve a complete response. Ten (77 percent) of 13 cancers have shown no local recurrence. Three patients with persistent cancer underwent surgical resection and were found not to have nodal involvement. We concluded that photodynamic therapy is an alternative to surgical resection in the management of early superficial squamous cell carcinoma.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1323-1327. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1323

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare but serious complication occurring after long bone fractures. Presence of fat droplets in cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage has been proposed as a specific tool for FES diagnosis in trauma patients. We evaluated this technique over a 15-month period in 85 patients. Twenty-eight patients were excluded. The remaining 57 patients were divided into three groups: group 1, 26 patients without trauma as control; group 2, 22 patients with trauma but without evidence of FES; and group 3, nine patients with trauma and evidence of FES. Six of 26 patients in group 1 and nine of 22 patients in group 2 exhibited fat droplets in alveolar macrophages, whereas three of nine patients of group 3 had not. This study suggests that (1) presence of fat droplets in alveolar macrophages is not a reliable method for diagnosis of FES after long bone trauma, and (2) many conditions are associated with fat droplets in alveolar macrophages.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1328-1332. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1328

Among a total of 114 cases of resected lung adenocarcinoma that were examined by sputum cytologic study before bronchoscopy, 17 were sputum cytology-positive, but had no abnormal bronchoscopic findings. In most of these cases, the reason for detection was sputum and bloody sputum (58.8 percent). Pathologically, many cases were classified as stage III A or more (82.4 percent) due to mediastinal lymph node metastases. More than 70 percent of the cases showed vascular invasion. The proportion of well-differentiated cases was also high (52.9 percent). The prognosis of these cases was worse than sputum cytology-negative adenocarcinoma without abnormal bronchoscopic findings and better than sputum cytology-positive adenocarcinoma with abnormal bronchoscopic findings. There was no significant difference between these cases and sputum cytology-negative adenocarcinoma with abnormal bronchoscopic findings. Combined with the bronchoscopic findings, sputum cytologic study is useful for preoperative evaluation of lymph node metastasis and prognosis. This combined approach can provide information necessary to perform sufficient dissection of mediastinal lymph nodes and proper adjuvant therapy in sputum cytology-positive adenocarcinoma cases, even though there are no abnormal bronchoscopic findings.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1333-1336. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1333

It is known that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in impairment of postoperative pulmonary function. There is also a high incidence of pleural changes (pleural effusion or pleural thickening) after CABG. We hypothesized that those patients with pleural changes in the postoperative period would have a greater decrease in pulmonary function test (PFTs) results. The present study reports the results of 110 male patients who underwent CABG. The chest films and the PFT results obtained preoperatively and on the sixth postoperative day were reviewed. The relationship between pleural changes and PFTs was analyzed in patients who received saphenous vein graft alone (SVG group: 50 patients) or in combination with internal mammary artery grafting (IMA group: 60 patients). In the IMA group, the patients who had pleural changes had significantly greater decreases in their pulmonary function than did the patients without pleural changes. The decrease in the FVC, TLC and FEV1 in the patients with pleural effusions (37.6, 27.8 and 36.8 percent) was similar to that in patients with pleural thickening (34.6, 28.3 and 35.0 percent) and both were significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the changes in the patients with a normal radiograph (26.1, 17.6 and 26.9 percent). In the SVG group, the presence of pleural changes was not significantly related to the decrement in pulmonary function. The values of RV, FRC, Cst, and blood gases were not affected in the SVG or IMA group by the presence of pleural changes. We conclude that the presence of pleural changes on the chest radiograph is associated with a larger decrement of pulmonary function after CABG in the IMA group. This larger decrease probably reflects added thoracic trauma and is not due to the presence of pleural changes per se.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1337-1341. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1337

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery adversely affects arterial blood gas (ABG) determinations. The purposes of this study were to assess serial changes in ABGs following bypass surgery and identify factors that may influence these changes. Room air ABGs were obtained preoperatively and on days 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 postoperatively on 125 patients undergoing bypass surgery. Fifty-five patients (saphenous vein grafting [SVG] group) had only SVG grafting while 70 (internal mammary artery [IMA] group) received one (60 patients) or two (10 patients) IMA grafts in addition to the SVG grafts and were subjected to pleurotomy. The mean preoperative values (+/- SD) were as follows: PaO2, 75.1 +/- 7.7 mm Hg, P(A-a)O2, 20.9 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; PaCO2, 33.6 +/- 4.1 mm Hg; pH, 7.43 +/- 0.04; hemoglobin, 14.8 +/- 1.4 g/dl; and hematocrit, 44.2 +/- 3.9 percent. There was a large decrease in the PaO2 postoperatively. The nadir for the PaO2 (55.7 +/- 6.6 mm Hg) occurred on the second postoperative day. Eight days postoperatively, there were still significant abnormalities; the PaO2 was 65.7 +/- 7.3 mm Hg, the P(A-a)O2 was 33.2 +/- 8.8 mm Hg; the hemoglobin was 10.5 +/- 1.4 g/dl; and the hematocrit was 31.7 +/- 4.0 percent. The decrease in the PaO2 was particularly noteworthy given the large decrease in the hemoglobin and hematocrit. The changes in the PaO2 were not significantly correlated with the age, number of grafts, pump time, length of anesthesia, or endotracheal intubation or smoking history. Immediately postoperatively, changes were similar in both groups (p > 0.05); on the second postoperative day, the PaO2 had decreased 26.9 percent in the SVG group and 25.5 percent in the IMA group. However, the postoperative abnormalities resolved more slowly in the IMA group (p < 0.05). These observations suggest that the additional trauma to the lungs and chest wall in the IMA group (pleurotomy, the placing of pleural drains, etc) will result in a longer recovery time in the IMA group than in SVG group.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1342-1346. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1342

Although the asthmatic subject's compliance with a regimen of inhaled corticosteroids is often poor, it has been suggested this may improve during periods of increased severity. To test this, we measured daily peak expiratory flow rates (PEFRs), asthma symptoms, and the use of an albuterol inhaler over nine weeks period in ten patients with moderately severe asthma. The effect of changes in these severity indices on compliance with a q.i.d. regimen of inhaled beclomethasone was evaluated. The PEFR was measured in the morning before bronchodilator administration, and symptoms were graded on a scale of 4 to 16, while albuterol and beclomethasone inhalations were electronically recorded. Three measures of compliance with the beclomethasone regimen were used: (1) mean daily compliance ([number of inhalations/number of prescribed inhalations] x 100); (2) underuse, ie, the percentage of days with less than the prescribed number of inhalations; and (3) overuse, ie, the percentage of days with greater than the prescribed number of inhalations. Mean daily compliance was 67 +/- 36 percent, while underuse was observed in 69 percent and overuse in 11 percent of the days. Despite clinical exacerbations in six of the ten patients and considerable variation in the severity indices, no significant relationship was found between the change in asthma severity and compliance with the beclomethasone regimen. These findings do not support the concept of severity-modulated compliance with inhaled corticosteroids.

Topics: beclomethasone
Chest. 1992;102(5):1347-1350. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1347

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the thermal and humidification capacity of three heated hot water systems (HHWSs) and two heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) in ICU patients submitted to minute ventilation > 10 L/min. DESIGN: Prospective, controlled, randomized, not blinded study. SETTING: ICU of a university hospital. PATIENTS: ICU patients requiring controlled mechanical ventilation with minute ventilation > 10 L/min. Patients had to be sedated and paralyzed and had to require ventilation for more than four days. INTERVENTIONS: Following a randomized order, the patients were ventilated for 24-h periods with three HHWSs (Bennett Cascade 2 humidifier, Fisher-Paykel MR 460 and MR 600) and two HMEs (Pall Ultipor and Hygrobac filter). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: In each patient and for each 24-h period, absolute humidity, (AH), relative humidity (RH) of inspired gases, and tracheal temperature were obtained. Two HHWSs (Bennett and Fisher-Paykel MR 460) had a better thermal and humidification capacity than any other systems (p < 0.001). The hydrophobic HME (Pall filter) had a poor thermal and humidification capacity (RH: 79 +/- 8.7 percent; AH: 20.6 +/- 2.3 mg H2O/L). The hygroscopic filter (Hygrobac filter) had better thermal and humidification capacity than the Pall filter (RH: 92.5 +/- 3.6 percent; AH: 29.1 +/- 1.8 mg H2O/L; p < 0.001). Tracheal temperature was well preserved by all systems. The thermic and humidification capability of the Hygrobac filter declined over 24 h. Since the Pall filter could not achieve an AH > 25 mg H2O/L in any patient, it was not studied beyond the first measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The Hygrobac filter had a thermal and humidification capability closed to the two HHWSs (81 to 97 percent) but the capability declines over 24 h. The Pall filter had a poor capability (54 to 74 percent of that of HHWSs).

Chest. 1992;102(5):1351-1356. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1351

We compared, in a controlled clinical trial, the effect of specific inspiratory muscle training combined with general exercise reconditioning, for six months, with that of general exercise reconditioning alone on inspiratory muscle strength, endurance, and exercise performance in patients with COPD. Thirty-six patients were recruited into three groups; 12 patients received specific inspiratory muscle training combined with general exercise reconditioning, 12 patients underwent general exercise reconditioning alone, and the remaining 12 patients received no training. Specific inspiratory muscle training, for six months, improved the inspiratory muscle strength and endurance in patients with COPD. This training combined with general exercise reconditioning also provided improvement in exercise tolerance, and this improvement was significantly greater than that of general exercise reconditioning alone.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1357-1361. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1357

In patients with asthma, the respiratory muscles have to overcome the increased resistance while they become progressively disadvantaged by hyperinflation. We hypothesized that increasing respiratory muscle strength and endurance with specific inspiratory muscle training (SIMT) would result in improvement in asthma symptoms in patients with asthma. Thirty patients with moderate to severe asthma were recruited into 2 groups; 15 patients received SIMT (group A) and 15 patients were assigned to the control group (group B) and got sham training in a double-blind group-comparative trial. The training was performed using a threshold inspiratory muscle trainer. Subjects of both groups trained five times a week, each session consisted of 1/2-h training, for six months. Inspiratory muscle strength, as expressed by the PImax at RV, increased significantly, from 84.0 +/- 4.3 to 107.0 +/- 4.8 cm H2O (p < 0.0001) and the respiratory muscle endurance, as expressed by the relationship between Pmpeak and PImax from 67.5 +/- 3.1 percent to 93.1 +/- 1.2 percent (p < 0.0001), in patients of group A, but not in patients of group B. This improvement was associated with significant improvements compared with baseline for asthma symptoms (nighttime asthma, p < 0.05; morning tightness, p < 0.05; daytime asthma, p < 0.01; cough, p < 0.005), inhaled B2 usage (p < 0.05), and the number of hospital (p < 0.05) and sick-leave (p < 0.05) days due to asthma. Five patients were able to stop taking oral/IM corticosteroids while on training and one in the placebo group. We conclude that SIMT, for six months, improves the inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, and results in improvement in asthma symptoms, hospitalizations for asthma, emergency department contact, absence from school or work, and medication consumption in patients with asthma.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1362-1366. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1362

Incremental exercise testing using a cycle ergometer was performed in eight patients with giant bulla before and after bullectomy to assess dyspnea. There was a significant positive linear relationship between dyspnea expressed in the Borg scale (BS) and oxygen consumption (VO2) during exercise in all subjects. From these correlations, we introduced the following three new parameters for quantitative assessment of dyspnea: the Borg scale slope (BSS); the threshold load of dyspnea (TLD); and the breakpoint load of dyspnea (BLD), representing the slope of the regression line, onset of dyspnea on the regression line, and the maximum oxygen consumption before the subjects interrupted exercise, respectively. After surgery, the BSS showed marked decrease, and the TLD and BLD showed significant increase. Therefore, the reduction in the dyspnea with peak exercise after surgery was thought to be, at least in part, based on the delay of dyspnea onset, the decrease in dyspnea sensitivity, and the improvement in exercise capacity. The improvement in dyspnea during exercise in patients with giant bulla after surgery was extensively evaluated by newly introduced parameters based on BS-VO2 regression line.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1367-1370. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1367

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the utility of pulse oximetry in detecting clinically unapparent episodes of arterial desaturation in postoperative cardiac surgical patients and to evaluate the effect of pulse oximetry on ordering arterial blood gas analyses. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, partially blinded comparison. SETTING: Cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 35 patients following elective cardiac surgical procedures. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were monitored continuously with pulse oximetry throughout their ICU course. In group 1 patients, the SpO2 data were available at the bedside. In group 2 patients, the SpO2 data were masked at the bedside and monitored at a remote location. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Utilization of pulse oximetry allowed a significant reduction in arterial blood gas utilization in group 1 (group 1: 12.4 +/- 7.5 blood gas analyses per ICU admission vs group 2: 23.1 +/- 8.8; p = 0.0007) without adverse events. Clinically unapparent desaturations were detected in 7 of 15 patients in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse oximetry improves patient safety through the detection of clinically unapparent episodes of desaturation and can allow a reduction in the number of blood gas analyses utilized without adverse effects to the patient. This may allow a potential cost savings to the patient.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1371-1376. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1371

Former studies on the association between snoring and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have only partly taken established CVD risk factors into consideration. In the Copenhagen Male Study, 3,323 men aged 54 to 74 years were classified according to self-reported snoring habits. Eleven CVD risk factors were examined. The prevalence of snoring decreased with age, with a 50 percent higher frequency of snorers among the youngest quintile than among the oldest (p < 0.00001). Snoring, age adjusted, was positively associated with tobacco smoking (p < 0.001), alcohol consumption (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.0001), serum triglyceride level (p < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and nearly significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.07). Snorers were less physically active in leisure time than others (p < 0.01). The association between self-reported snoring and blood pressure disappeared when other factors, including BMI, were taken into consideration. No significant associations were found between snoring and social class, snoring and low- or high-density lipoprotein or between snoring and hypertension. We conclude that snoring is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. Accordingly, it is evident that in studies on snoring and CVD, proper controlling for the influence of potential confounders is a sine qua non.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1377-1383. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1377

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a method for measuring BTV in ventilated patients and to study the short-term effect of general anesthesia with midazolam, Fentanyl, pancuronium and O2:N2O on BTV. DESIGN: The study included phantom measurements on a bronchoscopy model and the determination of BTV in patients in a convenience sample trial. SETTING: The study took place in a university hospital. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients undergoing major abdominal surgery with planned postoperative mechanical ventilation were included in the study. All patients gave their written informed consent to participate in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Bronchial mucus transport velocity was measured with a small volume (0.05 to 0.08 ml) of technetium 99m-labeled albumin microspheres with an activity of 3 MBq. The radiolabeled bolus was deposited on the dorsal mucosal surface at the distal end of the right and left main bronchus via flexible bronchoscopy. The movement of the microspheres toward the trachea was visualized and recorded using a scintillation camera; quantitative evaluation utilized the condensed image. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: The technique was validated in a bronchoscopy model and in an intubated patient by moving a radioactive drop in a catheter through the main bronchi at velocities from 0 to 20 mm/min. The velocities determined by the image processing technique correlated well with the data by the model and patient determination (right bronchus, r = 1.0; left bronchus, r = 1.0). In seven ventilated patients, mechanical irritation by the fiberscope produced no significant effect on BTV. The BTV was measured preoperatively in seven conscious patients one day before surgery while they received local anesthesia with 10 ml of 1 percent lidocaine and postoperatively while they received intubation anesthesia. The preoperative and postoperative BTV values showed no significant differences (10.5; 5.7 to 13.7 mm/min; vs 9.7 (3.7 to 15.3) (median with range). CONCLUSION: By this method, bronchial transport velocity can be determined in a relatively short time in ventilated patients. General anesthesia with midazolam, Fentanyl, pancuronium and O2:N2O does not influence BTV.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1384-1391. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1384

In a two-year randomized controlled study, we studied the effects of bronchodilator treatment on the lung function and the quality of life in patients with mild airflow obstruction. The patients were randomly divided to receive either continuous or symptomatic bronchodilator treatment. Within these treatment groups, they received salbutamol in the first year and ipratropium bromide in the second or vice versa. In addition, the quality of life of the patients was compared to that of the general population. One hundred and forty-four patients completed the study. When compared to the general population, these patients showed a serious impairment in quality of life. No differences between the two drugs were found, but the results indicated that FEV1 decline in the continuously treated group was significantly larger than in the symptomatically treated group. However, this was not reflected in a significant deterioration of the quality of life in the continuous group as measured by means of the Nottingham Health Profile and the Inventory of Subjective Health. Decline in FEV1 showed no correlation with changes in quality of life scores. This may be due to a relatively rapid adjustment of the patients to a decline in FEV1, as a result of which it has no direct effect on the experienced quality of life. Another reason may be that continuous bronchodilation masks the worsening of the disease. This lack of awareness might in turn be caused by the continuous symptom relief of bronchodilators.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1392-1396. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1392

We examined physician management of patients hospitalized for status asthmaticus at a university hospital. A retrospective review of consecutive admissions for status asthmaticus covering a 13-month period yielded 130 charts for review. We found that practice patterns with respect to documentation of severity of illness, medications, and documentation of efficacy of therapy fell short of the current state of knowledge with respect to treatment of asthma. Asthma is a treatable disease, and physician education needs to bridge the gap between current practice patterns and standards of optimal therapy as defined in the literature.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1397-1401. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1397

We studied the acute hemodynamic effects of increasing nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in 13 patients with acute decompensation of congestive heart failure. Heart rate, respiratory rate, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, systemic blood pressure, and thermodilution cardiac outputs were measured at baseline, during, and after application of nasal CPAP at increasing pressures of 5, 10, and 15 cm H2O. Cardiac index, stroke volume, and oxygen delivery were calculated. Based on a significant change in cardiac output greater than or equal to 400 ml, seven patients were classified as responders, whereas six patients were considered to be nonresponders. In responders, significant increases were noted in cardiac index (2.5 +/- 0.7 to 2.9 +/- 0.9 L/min/m2), stroke volume (49 +/- 15 to 57 +/- 16 ml), and oxygen delivery (10.3 +/- 5.1 to 12.3 +/- 6.0 ml/min/kg) without a change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. In contrast, the nonresponders showed no significant change in any of the hemodynamic parameters. Improvement in cardiac output could not be predicted by any of the baseline hemodynamic or clinical variables, nor was it related to random variations since all variables returned to baseline after cessation of CPAP. Increase in stroke volume without a change in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (preload) suggests either improved inotropic function of the left ventricle or reduced left ventricular afterload with CPAP. Thus, CPAP may offer a new noninvasive adjunct to improving left ventricular function and augmenting cardiac performance in a subset of patients with congestive heart failure.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1402-1406. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1402

Intracranial pressure changes and poor cerebral perfusion have been reported in sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), but such studies have been limited due to lack of a reliable noninvasive study method. We determined the systolic (VS), diastolic (VD), and mean (VM) cerebral blood flow velocities of the middle cerebral artery in 23 individuals (12 severe SAS patients and 11 control subjects) using transcranial Doppler sonography before sleep, during sleep (NREM and REM) and upon awakening. All three velocities (VS = 87.4 cm/s compared to 104.7 cm/s, VD = 41.6 cm/s compared to 47.7 cm/s, and VM = 57.0 cm/s compared to 67.0 cm/s) were decreased in patients with SAS and VS and VM were significantly lower than in control subjects (p = 0.005 and p = 0.033, respectively). The end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) in the SAS patients (47.3 mm Hg) compared to the control subjects (41.8 mm Hg) was significantly higher (p = 0.003). When the VM was adjusted to normalized CO2 using the Markwalder's equation, the reduction in velocity in patients with SAS (47.5 cm/s) compared to control subjects (63.0 cm/s) became more significant (p = 0.005). This study shows that cerebral blood flow velocities are lower in patients with SAS compared to control subjects and that transcranial Doppler sonography may be useful in such evaluations.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1407-1412. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1407

To assess the pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic effects of oral captopril in patients with connective tissue disease and pulmonary hypertension, we performed right heart catheterization in eight patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis, the CREST syndrome, or mixed connective tissue diseases prior to and immediately following administration of captopril (dose range 12.5 to 50.0 mg, short-term study). Four of these patients underwent repeat right heart catheterization after three to six months of oral captopril therapy (long-term study). In the short-term study, oral captopril produced a significant decrease in mean pulmonary vascular resistance from 6.2 +/- 3.6 to 4.6 +/- 3.8 units (p < 0.01). This was accompanied by a significant decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean blood pressure, mean systemic vascular resistance and a significant increase in cardiac output. Similar changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were noted in the long-term study. Thus, oral captopril is capable of producing an acute and sustained reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension associated with the aforementioned connective tissue diseases.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1413-1418. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1413

Ten patients with chronic lung disease received an implanted ITOC. Seven patients continue to use their catheters after a mean period of 14.75 months. Four catheters were removed, 2 at 1 month, 1 after 10 months and 1 after 13 months. One patient requested a second catheter. Three patients experienced mucus plug formation; this was transient in two patients, but led to removal of the catheter in the third. To determine the degree of oxygen-saving afforded by the ITOC, SaO2 was measured at rest and during exercise for eight of the ten subjects using a double-blind technique. The calculated oxygen savings were around 40 percent both at rest and during exercise. The ITOCs were well received by the majority of our patients and were shown to produce a useful saving of oxygen which is of benefit to patients using portable systems and those who require high oxygen flow rates.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1419-1425. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1419

Two discriminant functions, incorporating baseline measurements of pulmonary function and measures of airway responsiveness, were developed to improve patient classification into groups of normal, asthma, or COPD. Accuracy of group classification was compared between the usual laboratory method (single discriminating cut-off) and these new mathematically developed functions. Forty-five normal subjects, 27 asthmatic patients, and ten well-defined COPD patients were entered into the analysis. Measurements of airway responsiveness were determined by measurement of both specific airway conductance (SGaw) and spirometry (FEV1) after sequential inhalation of methacholine. Results: A single discriminant cut-off using measures of SGaw (PD35) or FEV1 (PD20) does not sufficiently discriminate asthma from groups that contain normal and COPD subjects (67 to 71 percent predictive value). On the other hand, our discriminant functions demonstrated improved patient classification (positive predictive value, 88 to 89 percent). We conclude that bronchoprovocation tests used to evaluate the diagnosis of asthma should incorporate measures of baseline lung function into the analysis. This, we believe, is especially necessary when baseline lung function demonstrates minimal airflow obstruction and the possibility of other causes of airway disease exist.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1426-1435. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1426

Since the discovery of cortisol and the synthesis of related compounds, these potent pharmacologic agents have been progressively more widely utilized in allergic, pulmonary, and rheumatologic conditions. Organ transplantation represents a new group of patients added to the already large pool of subjects receiving glucocorticoids. However, glucocorticoids cause major side effects involving several organ systems, including the cardiovascular, endocrine, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, and musculoskeletal systems. Among the most dramatic side effects is the development of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid use in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease accounts for the majority of male patients with osteoporosis seen in our mineral metabolism clinic. This article focuses on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in the adult with an emphasis on the clinical aspects of this condition. It is intended not as an extensive review on the subject but as a practical guide to help clinicians prevent and treat this condition in adult patients.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1436-1440. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1436

In unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a patent mainstem bronchus, some studies of obstructive tumors, showed (1) a poor role for irradiation in obtaining efficient debulking and (2) an interest in preliminary laser treatment in these patients. Cryotherapy is another method to obtain debulking. Moreover, several studies showed that cryotherapy would increase the radiosensitivity of a tumor. We performed a preliminary protocol combining successively initial cryotherapy followed by irradiation in inoperable NSCLC (either for local or functional contraindications). Thirty-eight patients were included and treated first by cryotherapy performed under general anesthesia and then with external irradiation in a curative intent. The efficiency of cryotherapy assessed on bronchoscopy was found to be volume-efficient (VE) in 26 of the 38 patients and non-volume-efficient (NVE) in the other 12 patients. After irradiation in the VE group, 17 of the 26 patients had no bronchial residual tumor (NRT). In contrast, all of the patients in the NVE group had a bronchial residual tumor (RT). Survival in the VE group (median, 397 days) was significantly higher than the survival of the NVE group (median, 144 days). Survival was found to be independent of the surgical contraindication (local or functional). The best survival was associated both with the efficiency of the initial debulking (VE) by cryotherapy and with the local control (NRT) induced by the irradiation (median, 560 days). Local control was obtained in 65 percent (17/26) of the cases in the VE group and was never observed in the NVE group. In our study the VE group's local control is better than the 35 percent usually reported after irradiation alone. These results argue for the efficient potentiation of irradiation by cryotherapy.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1441-1443. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1441

To evaluate the usefulness of step sectioning of the transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) specimens obtained from patients with suspected sarcoidosis, we examined all TBLB specimens obtained from 132 patients who were diagnosed clinically as having sarcoidosis at our institute. When routine sections of TBLB specimens did not show sarcoid granuloma, we prepared additional serial sections from each block and stained every fifth section with hematoxylineosin (step sectioning). All step sections were examined histologically. With the aid of step sectioning, the diagnostic yield of sarcoidosis increased from 38 percent (18/47) to 47 percent (22/47) in stage 1 patients, and from 57 percent (37/65) to 82 percent (53/65) in stage 2 patients. All of the newly detected granulomas were identified between the first and seventh sections. We conclude that step sectioning is useful method in diagnosing sarcoidosis.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1444-1449. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1444

Sixty-one pediatric and adolescent patients (age < or = 16 years) with sarcoidosis proved by biopsy specimen were identified during the period 1957 to 1976; 19 patients with elapsed time from diagnosis of 8 to 35 years (mean, 21 years) were reexamined in 1985. Age at onset of disease ranged from 4 to 16 years (mean, 12.5 years). Sex distribution was equal; 68 percent of individuals were black. At follow-up, clinical evaluation, chest roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms (ECHO), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity were performed on each subject. In addition, complete blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, serum calcium, immunoglobulin levels, B- and T-cell enumerations, and intradermal skin tests for delayed hypersensitivity were also obtained. Although all initial pediatric chest roentgenograms were abnormal, at follow-up only 37 percent were abnormal. Pulmonary function test results were available for ten children, and 90 percent were decreased. In 1985, 68 percent of the adults had abnormal lung function; furthermore, eight patients had reduced diffusing capacities, one had hypoxemia, and two had elevated ACE activity. Specific abnormalities were noted on two ECGs and 12 ECHOs. One individual had an elevated sedimentation rate, while another had an increased serum calcium level. Six patients had elevated IgA values, two had elevated IgM values, and two had depressed IgM values; IgG values were normal in all subjects. B- and T-cell percentages were unremarkable in all patients tested. Four individuals were anergic to skin test antigens. Long-term pulmonary morbidity was observed in four patients; in addition, one of these and four others suffered nonpulmonary sequelae. These results are in agreement with those of other investigators, but insufficient data still exist on the long-term effects of sarcoidosis on the pediatric host.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1450-1454. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1450

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of thoracoscopic techniques to achieve parenchymal sparing wedge resection of peripheral lung lesions in patients with a history of malignancy, and to describe the morbidity, mortality, and hospital course associated with this approach. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a history of malignancy and lesions on computerized tomography in the outer one third of the lung parenchyma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Histologic analysis of resected lung lesions, operative findings, operative time, duration of chest tube drainage and hospital stay, operative morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: Twenty-one thoracoscopic resections of pulmonary parenchymal lesions were performed on 15 patients. All peripheral lesions identified by computerized tomography were found at thoracoscopy and successfully resected with the Nd:YAG laser (n = 7), an endoscopic stapler (n = 10), or both (n = 4). The mean diameter of the lesions was 0.8 cm (range 0.2 to 1.5 cm). Histologic analysis revealed metastatic disease in 13 patients and benign disease in 2 patients. All resection margins were free of tumor. The mean duration of chest tube drainage and postoperative hospital stay were 1.8 +/- 0.1 and 3.3 +/- 0.1 days, respectively. Mean operative time was 111 min (range 45 to 155 min). One patient who underwent a right thoracoscopic resection developed a transient left vocal cord paresis. There were no other complications and no deaths. CONCLUSION: Thoracoscopy was successful in identifying peripheral lung lesions and allowed for parenchymal sparing resection identical in extent to that performed with open approaches. For select patients with peripheral lung nodules felt to be metastases, thoracoscopic resection may result in reduced morbidity, cost, hospital stay and allow for more rapid institution of therapy for the primary disease.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1455-1459. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1455

By analysis of pleural effusions from 200 patients, 25 cases of amylase-rich effusions were identified, for an overall incidence of 13 percent. Four of the 25 patients (16 percent) had evidence of pancreatitis. These patients had higher mean ratios of pleural fluid to serum amylase levels (18 +/- 6.3 [SEM] vs 4.8 +/- 1.3) compared to patients with nonpancreatic diseases (p = 0.003); all four exhibited a predominant pancreatic isoenzyme profile. Of the 21 patients with nonpancreatic amylase-rich effusions, lung cancer was the most commonly associated condition (8 patients). In 14 of the 21 patients in whom an isoenzyme profile was obtained, salivary-type amylase was predominant. Amylase-rich pleural effusions occur frequently, and pleural fluid isoamylase determination is specific for pancreatitis-associated effusions. The finding of a pleural effusion rich in salivary isoamylase should prompt an evaluation for carcinoma (particularly of lung primary), but may also be seen in other pleural inflammatory conditions.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1460-1463. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1460

The purpose of this study was to determine whether any of the Mycobacterium kansasii cases were the consequences of primary lung malignancy. The records and chest x-ray films of 295 patients with M kansasii pulmonary infection were reviewed. The infection was found to complicate the primary lung neoplasm in four cases. Three patients had had treatment for malignancy: one patient with small cell carcinoma received chemotherapy, steroids and radiation; one with adenocarcinoma underwent a lobectomy and radiation; and the third patient had a lobectomy and radiation for malignant fibrohistiocytoma. The fourth patient developed the infection three years after lung malignancy manifested itself, which was only a few months before the clinical evidence of distant metastasis with adenocarcinoma was detected. We suggest that this infection be considered in patients from M kansasii endemic areas, especially after they have received radiation treatment for lung malignancy. This association has never been described before.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1464-1469. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1464

To understand the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the development of bronchiectasis, we investigated by CT the presence of bronchiectasis in two groups of chronic bronchitis patients and in a control group. There were no differences in clinical or laboratory findings between groups A and B. Three observers without any knowledge of these patients reported bronchiectasis on a scale of 0 to 3 and bronchial wall thickness on a scale of 0 to 3 in each lobe of both lungs. Bronchiectasis and wall thickness scores in group A (chronic bronchitis with P aeruginosa infection) were significantly higher than bronchiectasis scores and wall thickness in group B (chronic bronchitis without P aeruginosa infection). Both scores in group B were higher than those in group C (control group). These findings support the idea that chronic P aeruginosa infection plays a role in the development of bronchiectasis.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1470-1476. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1470

In order to characterize the imbalance between proteinases and proteinase inhibitors in sputum sol phases, we studied 25 patients (mean age, 59 +/- 11 yr) with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An aliquot of sputum was used for bacteriologic determinations, and the remainder was centrifuged in order to obtain gel and sol phases. On the basis of the bacteriologic data, patients were divided into colonized patients (14) and noncolonized patients (11). All of the major inhibitors were immunologically detectable in sol phases without a significant difference between colonized and noncolonized patients (alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor [alpha 1-PI], 2.56 microM +/- 0.53 microM and 2.39 microM +/- 0.72 microM; alpha 2-macroglobulin [alpha 2-MG], 0.21 microM +/- 0.07 microM and 0.16 microM +/- 0.05 microM; antileukoprotease (ALP), 1.78 microM +/- 0.57 microM and 1.53 microM +/- 0.6 microM, respectively [mean +/- SE]). With regard to proteinase activities, both free elastase-like and free chymotrypsin-like activities were detectable in the majority of patients (15/25) (0.59 microM +/- 0.15 microM and 0.74 microM +/- 0.15 microM for elastase-like activity [ELA], and 0.010 microM +/- 0.003 microM and 0.017 microM +/- 0.007 microM for chymotrypsin-like activity [CLA], respectively [mean +/- SE]). The inhibitory profile of proteinase activities, performed by means of a panel of inhibitors, allowed us to assign specific activities mainly to neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G (Cat G). Next we looked at the relationships between inhibitors and proteinase activities. We found a significant negative correlation between neutrophil elastase activity and ALP (r = -0.58; p < 0.01). In confirmation of this suggestion, sol phases were divided into samples (15) with detectable ELA (> 0.50 microM) and samples (10) with no detectable ELA (< 0.18 microM). Levels of alpha 1-PI and alpha 2-MG did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas ALP values were higher in the group with no detectable ELA (3.12 microM +/- 0.69 microM) than in the other group (0.58 microM +/- 0.21 microM; p < 0.001). We conclude that most sputum sol phases from patients with exacerbated COPD have a high burden of free neutrophil elastase and Cat G. Antileukoprotease seems to be the major naturally occurring inhibitor effective in the modulation of proteinase activities in bronchial secretions under these conditions.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1477-1483. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1477

Eighty-seven patients with primary mediastinal germ cell tumors treated between 1983 and 1990 were studied. Among the 23 patients classified as pure seminoma, eight (35 percent) underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy (n = 6), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (n = 2); two patients underwent radiotherapy; 13 patients (57 percent) underwent induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy (ten complete responses) followed by radiotherapy (n = 9), second line chemotherapy (n = 2) and surgical resection of residual tumor (n = 2). On completion of treatment, 22 patients (96 percent) with seminoma were free of disease. The two-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate of these patients was 86 percent. Among the 64 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor, 19 patients (30 percent) underwent surgery as first treatment (ten complete resections) followed by chemotherapy (n = 17) and radiotherapy (n = 5). On completion of treatment, 12 of 19 patients were disease free. Forty-five patients (70 percent) underwent induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy (ten complete responses), and 22 of them underwent resection of residual tumor (19 complete resections). Twenty-three patients were treated with first line chemotherapy without postchemotherapy surgery (three complete responses). In summary, 33 patients (52 percent) with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors became free of disease, and seven patients (21 percent) relapsed after achieving a complete response. The two-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate of the nonseminomatous germ cell tumor patients was 53 percent (87 percent if a complete response), with a median survival of 28 months. Despite a worse prognosis than nonseminomaous tumors from other primary sites, this series of mediastinal germ cell tumors has confirmed the efficacy of therapy.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1484-1490. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1484

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in predicting the development of human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated interstitial pneumonia (IP) in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, prospective, open-trial study. SETTING: Tertiary referral medical center. PATIENTS: 66 evaluable CMV-seropositive patients with hematologic malignancies who were undergoing allogeneic BMT. INTERVENTION: FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, TLC, Dcoc/VA, PaO2, and P(A-a)O2 were measured on days -13, +33, and +44 following BMT. CMV-IP was diagnosed when typical roentgenographic findings developed with confirmatory positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using standard cytologic and/or rapid culture techniques. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Univariate logistic regression analysis to predict the development of CMV-IP revealed significant associations with the day -13 and +33 percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and TLC (p < 0.01) but no associations with other PFT parameters or with changes in these parameters. Stepwise logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only BAL positivity for CMV (odds ratio 14.8; p = 0.0002) and day -13 percent predicted FEV1 (odds ratio 0.92; p = 0.0004) were significant independent predictors of CMV-IP. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant lung function is a previously unrecognized strong predictor and risk factor for the subsequent development of CMV-IP in BMT recipients.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1491-1495. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1491

Using a single radial immunodiffusion method, serum immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) was determined in 117 patients with primary lung cancer, 34 patients with benign lung disease, and 45 healthy control subjects. The mean value of IAP for patients with lung cancer was significantly higher than that of normal control subjects. There were no significant differences in IAP levels among different histologic types and among different stages of lung cancer. It was concluded that serum IAP level was elevated in patients with lung cancer, especially during the early postoperative period, and serial measurements of serum IAP were of value in monitoring lung cancer patients.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1496-1498. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1496

Eighteen postmenopausal women were examined by Doppler echocardiography before initiation of HRT (T1), then after ten weeks (T2) and one year (T3). This study group was compared with another in which HRT was not used. Flow velocity integral, which correlates with SV, and MA, an indicator of cardiac contractility, were calculated. In the study group, PFV was 107 +/- 18 cm/s at T1 and increased significantly at T2 and T3. Ejection time, which was prolonged at T2 compared to T1, returned to its basal value at T3. Flow velocity integral increased at T2, but this change was only partially sustained at T3. Mean acceleration maintained its increase throughout T2 to T3. None of the Doppler parameters showed a significant change in the controls from T1 to T3. Our results suggest that the peripheral hemodynamic effects of HRT, such as vasodilatation, are transient, whereas the central effects (increased inotropism) are long-lasting.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1499-1506. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1499

In order to assess whether the outcome of MI can be predicted by clinical data alone or whether and how much noninvasive testing is necessary to predict cardiac events or death, 361 patients were prospectively evaluated and followed for up to five years. A recursive partitioning analysis indicated that high-risk patients can be identified clinically after MI with a high degree of accuracy; to separate low-risk patients who need no further investigation or therapy, however, one additional noninvasive test is necessary which allows quantification of myocardial damage as well as exercise-induced ischemia. Additional tests added little to this risk prediction, indicating that multiple noninvasive testing should not be performed.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1507-1511. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1507

In this study, independent contribution of age, HR, BMI, casual and ambulatory blood pressure, LVM and LVEF in evaluating diastolic filling have been investigated in 34 never-treated hypertensive patients and in 15 healthy normotensive subjects. All the subjects were free from coronary artery disease, valvular disease, heart failure, renal disease and psychiatric problems. All the hypertensive subjects (never treated) were subgrouped according to presence or absence of LVH. The PFR decreased significantly and tPFR increased significantly in hypertensive patients in comparison with normotensive subjects and they did not change in the presence vs absence of LVH. The PFR was inversely correlated with BMI, age, 24-h mean SBP and with 24-h DBP. In multiple regression analysis, PFR decreased with BMI, age, 24-h mean SBP and DBP but not with LVMI. These results suggest that BMI, age and 24-h mean blood pressure were the major determinants of PFR abnormalities in hypertensive patients.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1512-1515. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1512

Previous studies have reported mixed results when correlating etCO2 and PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated patients with underlying respiratory disease. However, the utility and accuracy of capnography in nonintubated patients, without chronic pulmonary disease, has received little attention. We studied 25 nonintubated surgical patients to (1) examine the correlation between PaCO2 and etCO2 and (2) describe the relationship between dead space (VD/VT), venous admixture and P(a-et)CO2. End tidal CO2 was lower than PaCO2 by an average of 3.6 mm Hg. Regression analysis found a close correlation between dead space and the P(a-et)CO2 gradient (r = 0.77, p < 0.001), while venous admixture was of lesser importance (r = 0.47). Capnographic estimates of PaCO2 can be useful for continuously monitoring the respiratory status of nonintubated spontaneously breathing patients weaned from mechanical ventilation. This may be of particular value in trauma victims and in selected surgical patients without underlying respiratory disease in whom other injuries require continued critical care.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1516-1519. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1516

Rhodotorula rubra was recovered in 18 bronchoscopic specimens from 15 patients from May to November 1987. One hundred and twenty-one bronchoscopies were performed during that period by two bronchoscopists (W. W.; R.D.) at Letterman Army Medical Center in San Francisco. Isolation of R rubra occurred in 11 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens, four bronchial washes, and three transbronchial biopsies. Clinical infection was not present in any of these patients, although five were immunocompromised hosts. After a stepwise infection control review of the laboratory, the bronchoscopy suite, bronchoscopists, and the fiberoptic bronchoscope failed to recover the organism, a systematic evaluation of the cleaning procedure was undertaken. We discovered that replacement of the suction valve and the rubber biopsy valve on the biopsy channel immediately after cleaning allowed moisture to accumulate in these areas. Removal of both the suction valve and biopsy valve during periods of nonuse resulted in adequate drying of the biopsy channel and eradication of contamination from December 1987 to May 1990 (350 bronchoscopies). Epidemiologic and infection control surveillance is critical for bronchoscopy, especially when possible pathogens are recovered by BAL in the immunocompromised patient.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1520-1521. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1520

Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) isoenzymes are commonly obtained after heart transplantation (HT) to assess myocardial injury of the donor heart. This investigation retrospectively evaluated the utility of this practice. Fifty-six recipients of orthotopic heart transplants had at least two daily CPK-MB studies following HT. All patients were followed up for at least one year (or until death). Nineteen patients had entirely negative CPK-MB determinations (NEG). Eighteen patients had a single positive CPK-MB determination, and were considered to be equivocal (EQUIV). Nineteen patients had more than one daily positive CPK-MB determination (POS). To evaluate the influence of positive CPK-MB determinations on the outcome of HT, we compared the results in the NEG and POS groups. There was no difference in the donor organ ischemic times between the two groups. The duration of follow-up for the two groups was also similar (1,192 days vs 1,020 days). The NEG and POS groups had no significant difference in: 1 year survival (84 percent vs 74 percent); freedom from treated rejection episodes in 3 months (39 percent vs 42 percent); and freedom from coronary artery disease (CAD) at 3 years (83 percent vs 86 percent). Additionally, the ejection fractions of the donor hearts were similar at 1 year post-transplant for the 2 groups (64 percent vs 59 percent). We conclude that myocardial injury, as reflected by post-transplant CPK-MB levels, does not predict one-year mortality, predisposition to rejection, predisposition to coronary artery disease, or ultimate graft dysfunction. In an effort to perform HT more economically, we no longer obtain CPK-MB levels following HT.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1522-1525. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1522

Regular preoperative application of corticosteroids has been considered as a contraindication to lung transplantation for fear of an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Recently, however, we have accepted patients for transplantation in whom treatment with steroid medication could not be terminated preoperatively. Up to February 1991, 27 unilateral and bilateral transplantations in 26 patients were analyzed. Corticosteroid therapy was discontinued at least three months prior to transplantation in 13 patients (group 1), whereas in 14 cases, the patients continued their daily corticosteroid therapy to the time of transplantation (prednisolone, 0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg/day; group 2). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to sex, age, diagnosis, or type of transplantation. One limited bronchial dehiscence occurred; the incidence of postoperative bronchial stenosis was identical in both cohorts; one patient died in each group. In conclusion, no increased morbidity or mortality could be found following lung transplantation with regular preoperative administration of prednisolone up to 0.3 mg/kg/day. Thus, patients who cannot be weaned from their steroid medication but who otherwise are acceptable candidates should not be excluded from lung transplantation.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1526-1530. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1526

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety of total intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous assisted ventilation during interventional rigid bronchoscopy (IRB). DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative study. SETTING: A university hospital thoracic endoscopy and laser center. PATIENTS: Eighty-three patients underwent a total of 124 procedures (including Nd:Yag laser therapy, stent insertions, transbronchial biopsies/bronchoalveolar lavages (TBB/BALs) in transplant patients and others). Results of preanesthesia consultation, endoscopic and anesthesia intervention, perioperative complications, and time spent in recovery room were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Respiratory complications occurred in 22 procedures (18 percent) and included severe intraoperative or postoperative oxyhemoglobin desaturations (19 cases), bronchospasms/laryngospasms (two cases), and one recurrent pneumothorax. These complications were mostly related to the endobronchial surgical procedure. Respiratory complications occurred more frequently in patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 3 and 4 status (p < 0.005) and in patients with a karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) below 70 (p < 0.05). No cardiac complications were noted, although 13 patients had significant underlying heart disease. Propofol was used in 121 procedures. Etomidate was used 15 times for induction and three times for both induction and maintenance in patients with ASA status 4 or low blood pressure before induction. CONCLUSION: Total intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous assisted ventilation is a well-suited technique for IRB. Severe hypoxemia, however, may occur in approximately 15 percent of patients. This complication is usually related to the procedure itself and is easy to reverse. Propofol is well tolerated in the majority of patients but it must be used with care in patients with poor functional or cardiovascular status.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1531-1536. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1531

The implementation of a smoke-free policy in this medical center was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of regular cigarette smoking from 16.7 percent to 13.8 percent and a smoking cessation rate of 22.5 percent among regular smokers over the 2 1/2 years since the policy was announced. This decrease in prevalence is the result of both smoking cessation among existing employees and less frequent regular smoking among new employees. At two-year follow-up, the policy was overwhelmingly endorsed by medical center staff overall but was viewed less favorably by those who continued to smoke. Nevertheless, over the 2 1/2 years, many of these smokers have been in the action stage of cessation (37.1 percent made a serious attempt to stop smoking, 20.7 percent had used nicotine polacrilex in a smoking-cessation effort, and 13.8 percent had attended a formal cessation program). The implementation of a smoke-free policy has made a significant contribution toward providing a healthful work environment and toward encouraging nonsmoking behavior in staff and patients.

Topics: smoke
Chest. 1992;102(5):1537-1543. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1537

Distribution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was assessed in 791 consecutive patients who were referred to the outpatient clinic of the pulmonary department due to asthmatic or persistent lower airway symptoms. Bronchial asthma was diagnosed in 319 patients. Clinical sensitivity of methacholine challenge for the disease was 89 percent and specificity, 76 percent. The degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the entire group of asthmatic patients was unimodally log normal distributed. Of the 82 patients with allergic rhinitis without concurrent asthma, 27 percent had bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but of a markedly lesser degree than in the hyperresponsive asthmatic patients. In 49 patients with chronic bronchitis, 22 percent had hyperresponsiveness. The present data indicate that the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients is unimodally distributed, supporting the view that both genetic and environmental factors have an impact upon its development. Although the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma is more pronounced than in allergic rhinitis or in chronic bronchitis, a marked overlap exists.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1544-1549. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1544

Formoterol solution aerosol has proved to be a fast and long-acting beta 2-sympathicomimetic drug in many clinical trials. The physical stability, however, was such that storage needed to be at 4 degrees C to 8 degrees C before first use; afterwards, the aerosol could be used for another three months at room temperature. To improve the stability, new ways have been investigated to formulate ann aerosol with improved shelf life and thus more convenient storage conditions, which was reached with a formoterol suspension aerosol. Equivalent single doses between the two formulations revealed no differences in onset or duration of action. In a double-blind, randomized parallel group multicenter study, organized in the Netherlands, 186 patients with stable asthma and reversible airway obstruction were treated either with one puff of 12 micrograms twice daily of formoterol metered dose inhaler (MDI) supension (SP) or a same dose of solution (SL) aerosol for 12 weeks to study the efficacy and tolerability of both presentations after a longer period of use. The following criteria of effectiveness were used: the FEV1 values on the mornings of the control days at 0, +4, +8, and + 12 weeks, the peak flow values (PEF) in the mornings and in the evenings before, and 1/2 to 1 h after treatment, the number of asthma attacks at night and during the day, the number of extra puffs at night and during day, and the subjective impression of patients and investigator. RESULT: No statistically significant differences between the two formoterol preparations were found. There was no indication of tachyphylaxis. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the biologic effects of formoterol when delivered from MDI containing the two different formulations of the drug are equivalent.

Topics: asthma , formoterol , aerosols
Chest. 1992;102(5):1550-1552. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1550

Patients with Klinefelter's syndrome show a high incidence of restrictive lung defects, the pathogenesis of which is not clear yet. We investigated the respiratory muscle force (PImax) and lung compliance in 13 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome who had not been receiving hormonal therapy for at least one year prior to being studied. Eleven were smokers and two were nonsmokers. None showed abnormalities of the chest wall. Five had normal lung volumes and eight showed a restrictive defect (TLC < 80 percent, VC < 85 percent, FEV1/FVC percent within normal values); DCOSB and arterial blood gases were within normal limits. PImax was similar in restricted (-115.9 +/- 26.7 cm H2O) and not restricted patients (-115.4 +/- 20.3 cm H2O), all within reference values. Lung compliance, however, was significantly decreased in the four patients studied (0.13 +/- 0.08 cm H2O-1) compared with five normal control subjects (0.29 +/- 0.05 cm H2O-1). We conclude that the likely cause of the lung restriction is a decrease of compliance of the lung matrix, probably related to the absence of testosterone.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1556-1561. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1556

Inverse ratio ventilation, with prolonged inspiratory times, appears to improve gas exchange and arterial oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory failure; however, in previous studies, pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PC-IRV), which uses a rapidly decelerating inspiratory flow pattern, was compared to conventional volume-controlled ventilation, which uses a constant inspiratory flow rate. Pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV), with a decelerating inspiratory flow pattern and conventional inspiratory-to-expiratory (I/E) ratios, also has been shown to produce improvement in PaO2 when compared to volume-controlled ventilation. It therefore is unknown if the potentially beneficial effects of PC-IRV are due to the reversal of I/E ratios or to the use of the rapidly decelerating inspiratory flow pattern. In order to investigate this issue, cardiorespiratory values were measured in ten patients with severe respiratory failure ventilated first with PCV, then PC-IRV, and finally with a second period of PCV. Tidal volume, respiratory rate, end-expiratory pressure, and fraction of oxygen in inspired gas (FIO2) were maintained at the same value for both ventilatory modalities. The PC-IRV was associated with significant increases in PaO2, arterial pH, and mean airway pressure. Significant decreases in pulmonary shunt fraction, PaCO2, and cardiac index were found with PC-IRV. No significant changes in tissue oxygen delivery or consumption occurred with either PCV or PC-IRV. These results demonstrate that inversion of conventional I/E ratios produces no significant improvement in the overall cardiorespiratory profile of critically ill patients. This study also suggests that the clinical utility of PC-IRV is limited except in the setting of the adult respiratory distress syndrome with hypoxemia or hypercapnia refractory to other therapeutic options.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1562-1565. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1562

Incidence and potential risk factors for pneumonia due to Haemophilus influenzae in adults treated with mechanical ventilation in a medical-surgical ICU were investigated. Diagnosis was established in 91 episodes and H influenzae was isolated in 20 of them. Mean onset of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to H influenzae was 10.8 days after intubation. Six patients with H influenzae VAP died in the ICU. Of 13 risk factors for developing VAP due to H influenzae, an absence of prior antibiotic treatment was the only variable which had statistical significance (p < 0.001). In these mechanically ventilated patients, Haemophilus influenzae was a common causative agent for VAP, frequently associated with Gram-positive cocci. Episodes of H influenzae VAP were associated with a lower mortality compared with other etiologies. The epidemiologic and clinical findings indicate that patients without a prior antimicrobial treatment have increased susceptibility to infections of the airway by H influenzae.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1566-1571. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1566

To determine whether a patient is hypermetabolic or hypometabolic, measured resting energy expenditure is compared with estimated (or predicted) energy expenditure. The latter is calculated using equations derived from measurements made in groups of healthy individuals. Body weight or body surface area are among the variables used in these equations. Yet, in critically ill patients, body weight often rises because of fluid resuscitation. This study examined the differences between using preoperative, postoperative, and ideal body weights on the determination of hypermetabolism and hypometabolism in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. When the elevated postoperative weights were used instead of the preoperative ones to predict energy expenditure, the degree of hypermetabolism was underestimated. Subtracting the weight of the cumulative net fluid balance from the postoperative weight was found to accurately reflect preoperative weight. The influence of various predictive equations on the magnitude of hypermetabolism was also explored. In conclusion, it is important, when determining hypermetabolism or hypometabolism, to consider the influence of the specific predictive equation used and the effect of resuscitation fluid.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1572-1577. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1572
Topics: organ donation
Chest. 1992;102(5):1578. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1578-b
Chest. 1992;102(5):1578. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1578-a
Chest. 1992;102(5):1581-1582. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1581
Chest. 1992;102(5):1583-1585. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1583

A 38-year-old man with an anomalous systemic arterial supply from the descending thoracic aorta to the normal basilar segments of the left lower lobe experienced symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnea. Although the pulmonary parenchyma was normal, there was no pulmonary arterial supply to the basilar segments of the left lower lobe. Left lower lobectomy was performed because of worsening left-to-left shunt. Aortography and pulmonary arteriography form the cornerstone for diagnosis, but a less invasive diagnostic method with less patient suffering is high-resolution computed tomography, which might replace bronchography for accurate evaluation of the distribution and patency of the bronchial tree and delineation of the characteristic "Medusa's hair"-like anomalous vascular supply penetrating into the nearly normal pulmonary parenchyma.

Topics: left lung
Chest. 1992;102(5):1586-1590. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1586
Chest. 1992;102(5):1591-1594. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1591

We recently reported the first case of accidental aspiration of polyacrylamide occurring in a 26-year-old man. The patient developed severe airway obstruction and parenchymal lung damage and died. Autopsy revealed numerous polyacrylamide particles in his lungs, as well as extensive bronchiolar and alveolar damage. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric assessment of the lung tissue failed to reveal polyacrylamide activity, although assessment of the suspending solvent of the polyacrylamide showed a pattern characteristic of an aliphatic hydrocarbon mixture with a prominent dodecane peak. This experimental study was performed to determine the nature and extent of damage to rat bronchial and alveolar epithelia following endotracheal instillation of polyacrylamide, hydrocarbon mixture (petroleum distillate), dodecane (C12H26), or normal saline. The rat lungs were examined grossly and microscopically 10 min and 24, 72, and 96 h after endotracheal instillation, following inflation and fixation with 10 percent buffered formaldehyde. Gross examination revealed congested, mottled visceral pleural surfaces in the rats treated with polyacrylamide and dodecane. There were no pleural exudates or effusions. Microscopically, vascular engorgement, bronchiolitis, and focal pneumonia were observed. Vascular engorgement was most pronounced at 72 to 96 h in rat lungs treated with polyacrylamide and dodecane and was moderate at 24 h in rats treated with petroleum distillate. Focal organizing pneumonia was marked at 96 h in rats treated with petroleum distillate, at 72 h in those treated with polyacrylamide, and at 24 h in those treated with dodecane. The saline-treated control animals showed no change. Our findings suggest that polyacrylamide, dodecane, and petroleum distillate are strong irritants to the airways. However, a direct obstructive/mechanical effect of the polyacrylamide upon the airway has not been excluded. Airway exposure to polyacrylamide may result in lung injury secondary to the polyacrylamide itself, its suspending agents, or both.

Topics: lung
Chest. 1992;102(5):1595-1596. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1595

Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with propylthiouracil therapy is a well-documented clinical entity. Although any organ system may be involved, it is most unusual for pulmonary manifestations to be the cardinal presenting features. We report a 72-year-old woman presenting with respiratory failure and hemoptysis following initiation of propylthiouracil therapy for Graves' disease. She had cutaneous stigmata of hypersensitivity vasculitis and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. The infiltrates improved dramatically after discontinuation of the propylthiouracil therapy and initiation of intravenous corticosteroid therapy.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1597-1598. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1597

Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis was diagnosed by percutaneous transthoracic fine needle biopsy specimen in an 88-year-old woman. Congo red staining should be performed whenever band-like hyalinized material is obtained on aspiration of a solitary nodule. Dense calcifications can occur in pulmonary amyloidomas. In selected cases, fine needle biopsy appears to be preferable to transbronchial forceps biopsy since the risk of a possibly life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage may be lower.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1599-1600. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1599

The successful use of streptokinase therapy in a child with chronic thrombosis of a prosthetic valve (Carbomedics) in the tricuspid position is presented.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1601-1603. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1601

A patient undergoing esophageal dilatation for carcinoma of the esophagus suffered esophageal perforation and development of an empyema. Culture of pleural fluid yielded multiple organisms, including Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5. Epidemiologic investigation showed that the source of L pneumophila was a tap used by the nursing personnel to fill patients' water pitchers. Whole-cell restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA from the clinical and environmental isolates of L pneumophila serogroup 5 yielded identical patterns. Our findings suggest that L pneumophila was acquired by the patient at least 12 h prior to the procedure causing the esophageal perforation and empyema, suggesting that the organism can persist in an infectious form in the upper aerodigestive tract.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1604-1605. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1604

Tuberculosis is increasing in prevalence in North America, mainly due to HIV infection. We describe an unusual case of TB of the thymus in a HIV sero-negative Filipino immigrant who preoperatively was thought to have a thymoma. We describe the clinical, radiologic and pathologic findings and review the literature on TB of the thymus.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1605-1607. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1605

We evaluated a 29-year-old candy maker with no history of asthma who developed asthma after exposure to pectin, a compound manufactured from fruits and fruit rinds. Following eight years of employment during which he added pectin to a recipe for Christmas candies, the candymaker developed acute respiratory symptoms. Challenge testing with the pectin mixture caused a 40 percent decrease in FEV1. Skin prick testing was positive to the pectin extract. Total IgE was normal and pectin-specific IgE antibodies were not detected. A strongly positive pectin-specific IgG4 antibody response was present that was not detected in a control serum and could be inhibited by the addition of pectin. Antigen-specific IgG4 should be sought in IgE negative cases of occupational asthma.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1608-1610. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1608

We report herein the association of primary pulmonary amyloidosis and ankylosing spondylitis. To our knowledge, this rare association has never been reported. This case reemphasizes that not all pulmonary complications that appear in the course of ankylosing spondylitis are related to the seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Primary pulmonary amyloidosis should be considered in patients with interstitial pulmonary disease.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1610-1612. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1610

We describe a two-month-old infant with early congestive heart failure due to anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. The diagnosis was made by two-dimensional and color flow Doppler echocardiography, confirmed by angiocardiography, and the case was successfully corrected at surgery. As opposed to the more frequent anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, this anomaly generally does not cause any typical clinical finding, often becoming an autoptic or surgical surprise after infancy or in adult age.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1612-1614. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1612

Percutaneous catheter drainage is a standard therapy for management of selected intra-abdominal abscesses. We describe three patients in whom this technique caused complicated thoracic empyemas. All patients required thoracotomy for decortication despite initial thoracostomy tube drainage. In each case, the percutaneously placed drainage catheter was found traversing the costophrenic angle, leading to direct communication between the pleural space and the abscess cavity. Review of the anatomic relationships of the inferior pleural margin to the lower ribs may help prevent this technical error.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1614-1615. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1614

Diffuse lung injury can either heal normally or progress to fibrosis. Calcification in the setting of fibrosis is common. The appearance of mature woven bone is not. We report a patient with extensive diffuse pulmonary ossification and discuss some of the theories relating to the development of this phenomenon.

Topics: lung , osteogenesis
Chest. 1992;102(5):1616-1618. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1616

The findings in a 40-year-old man with Kartagener's triad (sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and situs inversus) and corrected transposition of the great vessels are presented. Electron microscopy revealed normal ultrastructure of the axoneme in both respiratory cilia and sperm tails. Light microscopic evaluation of the spermatozoa showed 50 percent motility, suggesting normal fertility. This assumption is confirmed, as the patient has two children. We suggest that an abnormal, uncoordinated motility pattern of the ultrastructurally normal respiratory cilia results in improper mucociliary clearance. This coordination is not needed in swimming spermatozoa, which could explain the apparent paradox between bronchopulmonary symptoms and normal fertility in our patient.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1618-1619. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1618

A 48-year-old male patient underwent mitral annuloplasty for severe mitral regurgitation secondary to myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, with ruptured chordae. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography showed satisfactory repair. The patient developed postoperative atrial fibrillation and clinical and echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction. Following conversion to sinus rhythm, the evidence for left ventricular outflow obstruction markedly improved. We suggest that postoperative atrial fibrillation may precipitate dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction following mitral annuloplasty.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1619-1621. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1619

A 34-year-old HIV-infected man was successfully treated with antimicrobial therapy alone for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia and has survived longer than six months. In the current literature, only two of seven HIV-infected patients so treated have survived as long as six months. Based on our experience and the available literature, it seems reasonable to treat HIV-infected patients with R equi pneumonia who do not require surgical intervention with prolonged intravenous therapy followed by long-term oral therapy with at least two effective antibiotics. The optimal choice and duration of antibiotic therapy need to be determined.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1621-1623. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1621

The clearance of theophylline by hemodialysis was determined in one patient who had polycystic kidney with chronic renal failure and bronchial asthma. The serum levels of theophylline were determined by enzymatic immunoassay on two consecutive days, once on a dialysis day and again on a nondialysis day. Clearance of theophylline by hemodialysis was 119 ml/min, and the extraction efficiency was 0.56. The elimination half-life of theophylline shortened from 5.7 h to 1.6 h during hemodialysis. The dialysis rate constant (Kd) was 0.32/h, and 79 percent of the total body store of the drug was removed during a 4-h dialysis. Patients receiving theophylline who are maintained on hemodialysis should be closely monitored for bronchospasm during and after the hemodialysis procedure. Measurement of serum concentrations of theophylline should be employed to facilitate increases in dosage during hemodialysis.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1623-1625. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1623

A 20-year-old woman presented with extremely rare multiple coronary artery fistulas with left circumflex and right coronary arteries as the feeding vessels and two distinct sites of drainage into the posterior wall of the right ventricle near the apex in close proximity. The large left fistula was well depicted by transthoracic echocardiography, whereas the transesophageal approach better delineated part of the smaller right fistula.

Chest. 1992;102(5):1625-1627. doi:10.1378/chest.102.5.1625

Although inconclusively established, positive pressure ventilation may augment cardiac function in congestive cardiomyopathies. We report a patient with acute mitral regurgitation who experienced enhanced myocardial performance and resolution of large pulmonary artery v waves during mechanical ventilation. This observation supports the existence of a cardiac booster effect from positive pressure ventilation.

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  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543