There is growing evidence that pulmonary function impairment has been found to be related to cardiovascular events and death. Some studies showed that the level of forced vital capacity (FVC) was negatively related to arterial stiffness, but most studies were confined to males and none of them examined the association of the presence of restrictive spirometry pattern with arterial stiffness. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of restrictive spirometry pattern with arterial stiffness by gender.
This study recruited 2,961 subjects after excluding those with 1) obstructive lung disease, as defined by history and pulmonary function test; 2) history of asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis, coronary heart disease, stroke or any pulmonary structural deformities, and 3) medications influencing blood pressure, plasma glucose, lipid profile and pulmonary function test. Restrictive spirometry pattern was diagnosed as an FVC<80% of the predicted value and FEV1/FVC ratio ≥70%. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as right brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/sec.
In both males and females FVC was negatively associated with the baPWV level. Restrictive spirometry pattern was positively associated with increased arterial stiffness in both males and females (males: odds ratio: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.33 - 3.50; females: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.72) after adjustment for other clinical variables.
Both restrictive spirometry pattern and reduced FVC were associated with a higher risk of arterial stiffness, not only in males but also in females. Clinically, assessment of arterial stiffness might be considered in individuals with restrictive spirometry pattern.