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Original Research |

Reference values for peak exercise cardiac output in healthy individuals

Piergiuseppe Agostoni, MD, PhD; Carlo Vignati, MD; Piero Gentile, MD; Costanza Boiti, MD; Stefania Farina, MD; Elisabetta Salvioni, PhD; Massimo Mapelli, MD; Damiano Magrì, MD, PhD; Stefania Paolillo, MD; Nicoletta Corrieri, MD; Gianfranco Sinagra, MD; Gaia Cattadori, MD
Author and Funding Information

Funding: Centro Cardiologico Monzino RC2015: 2613322

Conflict of interest: none declared

1Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan, Italy

2Dept. of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milano, Milano, Italy

3Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata and University of Trieste, Cardiovascular Department, Division of Cardiology, Trieste, Italy

4Dept. Clinical and Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza” Università degli Studi di Roma, Roma, Italy

5IRCCS SDN Istituto di Ricerca, Napoli, Italy

6Unità Operativa Cardiologia Riabilitativa, Ospedale S.Giuseppe, Multimedica Spa, IRCCS, Milano, Italy

Address for correspondence: Piergiuseppe Agostoni, MD, PhD Dept. Of Clinical sciences and Community health, Cardiovascular Section, University of Milano, Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS University of Milan. via Parea 4, 20138 Milan, Italy.


Copyright 2017, . All Rights Reserved.


Chest. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2017.01.009
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Abstract

Aims  Cardiac output (Q) is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, its measurement being crucial for the diagnosis, treatment and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, Q determination at peak exercise has been possible through invasive methods, so that normal values were obtained in studies based on small populations.

Methods and Results  Nowadays, peak Q can be measured noninvasively by means of inert gas rebreathing technique (IGR). The present study was undertaken to provide reference values for peak Q in the normal general population and to obtain a formula able to estimate peak exercise Q from measured peak oxygen uptake (VO2).We studied 500 normal subjects (age 44.9±1.5 years, range 18-77, 260 males, 240 females) who underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with peak Q measurement by IGR.In the overall study sample, peak Q was 13.2±3.5 L/min (males: 15.3±3.3 L/min; females: 11.0±2.0 L/min, p<0.001) and peak VO2 was 95±18% of the maximum predicted value (male: 95± 19%; female: 95±18%). Peak VO2 and peak Q progressively decreased with age (R2: 0.082, p<0.001 and R2: 0.144, p< 0.001, respectively). The VO2-derived formula to measure Q at peak exercise was (4.4 x peak VO2) + 4.3 in the overall study cohort, (4.3 x peak VO2) + 4.5 in males and (4.9 x peak VO2) + 3.6 in females.

Conclusions  The simultaneous measurement of Q and VO2 at peak exercise in a large sample of healthy subjects provided an equation to predict peak Q from peak VO2 values.


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