First, IP is probably not the right term because it would mean blood flow restriction. In the present case, however, preconditioning stimuli are evoked rather by repeated hypoxic episodes due to hypoventilation, which should then be termed hypoxic preconditioning (HP). The distinction between these two types of preconditioning is important, especially regarding their potential for therapeutic use. In contrast to IP, HP is easily and safely applicable and has been used as a preconditioning stimulus since the 1990s. For instance, recently we were also able to demonstrate that even short periods (five sessions per week for 3 weeks) of HP resulted in improved exercise tolerance in patients with cardiovascular disease or COPD.