The most important treatment intervention in NMS is to stop the causative agent or, if NMS is related to cessation of dopaminergic agents, to restart the agent at previous baseline dosage. Patients with NMS are at risk for numerous complications including dehydration, renal failure, respiratory failure, hyperthermia-related seizures, and cerebrovascular accidents. Thus, supportive care including intravenous hydration, mechanical ventilation, cooling blankets, and blood pressure reduction may be required for some patients. Benzodiazepines are also recommended, if necessary, to control agitation. Recommendations for specific therapy for NMS are controversial and based on case reports, due to a paucity of prospective clinical trials. One proposed treatment is dantrolene, a skeletal muscle relaxant used for malignant hyperthermia, which is reported to reduce muscle rigidity and hyperthermia in NMS. In addition, both bromocriptine and amantadine have been used as each possesses dopaminergic activity. The optimal treatment duration for each of these options has not been rigorously tested, although some have advocated for 10 days of therapy followed by tapering. Electroconvulsive therapy has been attempted in patients who do not respond to pharmacologic therapy. Published case series have suggested that mortality rates are lower among patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy vs supportive care alone; however, a lack of methodologic rigor precludes drawing firm conclusions from these data.