Cancer immunotherapy is one of the most exciting recent advances for the treatment of lung malignancies such as lung cancer and mesothelioma. Checkpoint blockade immunotherapies are so named because they remove the blockade imposed by molecules such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PDL-1) on checkpoints required for T-cell activity. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PDL-1 antibodies have proved effective, but they produce responses in only about 25% of patients or less,,,,,, so additional treatment approaches are needed. Approaches to increase immunotherapy response rates include optimizing existing checkpoint blockade therapies or discovering new checkpoint molecules. These approaches are based on the assumption that in patients with lung cancer, there are many restraining suppressive factors or “brakes” on the anticancer immune response. However releasing the brakes is useless if there are no active mechanisms of cancer attack or the “accelerator” cannot be applied. It is becoming clear that one of the most powerful immune accelerators is likely to involve the induction or boosting of immune responses to mutated cancer-related proteins.,,, Until recently, lung cancer was considered to be a nonimmunogenic tumor, but there are now several lines of evidence that suggest otherwise; they also indicate that lung cancer may be amenable to immunotherapeutic approaches. Therefore, another attractive therapeutic approach is to identify cancer mutations and to create vaccines that “force” the patient's immune system to attack those mutations.