RESULTS: Information on smoking status was available in 132 patients of whom 76 (57.6%) were never smokers, 34 (25.8%) former smokers, and 22 (16.7%) current smokers. TNF-alpha concentrations in EAT and SAT were significantly higher in current smokers (CS) (SAT 42.46 ± 28.01 pg/mg; EAT 94.17 ± 85.50 pg/mg) than in never smokers (NS) (SAT 27.68 ± 27.02 pg/mg; EAT 44.60 ± 41.08 pg/mg), and former smokers (FS) (SAT 33.61 ± 44.28 pg/mg; EAT 44.63 ± 35.47 pg/mg). No difference was found between former smokers, and never smokers. P-value = 0.9486 (SAT NS vs. FS); 0.1259 (SAT FS vs. CS); 0.03880 (SAT NS vs. CS); 0.9969 (EAT NS vs. FS); 0.0179 (EAT FS vs. CS); 0.0048 (EAT NS vs. CS). Similarly, concentrations of IL-6 in EAT and SAT were significantly higher in current smokers (SAT 483.58 ± 682.16 pg/mg; EAT 677.60 ± 799.27 pg/mg) than in never smokers (SAT 206.31 ± 276.85 pg/mg; EAT 337.85 ± 423.28 pg/mg), and former smokers (SAT 201.16 ± 330.28 pg/mg; EAT 266.48 ± 315.55 pg/mg). No difference was observed between former smokers, and never smokers. P-value = 0.9689 (SAT NS vs. FS); 0.0576 (SAT FS vs. CS); 0.0455 (SAT NS vs. CS); 0.7610 (EAT NS vs. FS); 0.0075 (EAT FS vs. CS); 0.0136 (EAT NS vs. CS). Following other factors were included in a stepwise linear regression analysis: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, dyslipidaemia, and chronic use of statins, aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. No other clinical variables were statistically significantly associated with cytokine concentrations and the effect of smoking remained unchanged. Concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and AFABP were not associated with any of the studied variables.