RESULTS: 159 patients (58.5% males, mean age 66.4 ± 14.9 years) were included. Indications for NIV were classified as: Acute pulmonary oedema (37.1%), COPD exacerbation (25.8%), acute respiratory failure (ARF) in immunocompromised host (ICH) (15.1%), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (11.9%), pneumonia (7.5%), others (7.5%), palliation (3.8%), neuromuscular weakness (3.1%), restrictive lung disease (2.5%), asthma exacerbation (2.5%) and bronchiectasis exacerbation (1.9%). Amongst different indications excluding palliation, restrictive lung disease had the highest failure rate of 75%, followed by ARF in ICH (40.9%), bronchiectasis exacerbation (33.3%), pneumonia (25%), neuromuscular weakness (20%), acute pulmonary oedema (12.1%), OHS/OSA (10.5%), COPD Exacerbation (10%), others (8.3%) and asthma exacerbation (0%). Amongst different indications excluding palliation, ARF in ICH had the highest 30 day mortality of 37.5%, followed by restrictive lung disease (25%), asthma exacerbation (25%), others (25%), acute pulmonary oedema (18.6%), COPD exacerbation (12.2%) and pneumonia (8.3%). There were no mortalities for bronchiectasis exacerbation, neuromuscular weakness or OHS/OSA. There were no statistically significant variables (ideal body weight, pH/PaCO2/PaO2 change at 30 minutes post NIV, and respiratory rate at 30 minutes post NIV), which predicted risk of NIV failure or mortality at 30 days. However, NIV failure was a risk factor for mortality (OR=5.138, p=<0.0001).