RESULTS: A total of 150 TBPE patients were finally included. In 105 patients, repeated pleural fluid cultures were done simultaneously with both solid media (SM) and LM. Among them, 30 patients (28.6%) turned out to be positive for MTB in the first cultures, and 13 patients (12.4%) were additionally confirmed as TB only in the second cultures. However, in 45 patients who underwent repeated pleural fluid cultures only with SM, 9 patients (20.0%) turned out to be positive for MTB in the first cultures, and one more patient (2.2%) revealed positivity in the second culture. The isolation rate of MTB was significantly higher in repeated pleural fluid cultures (41.0%) than single culture (28.6%) using both SM and LM (p = 0.014).