RESULTS: Culture resultsEscherichia coli (E. coli) was the commonest agent in HCAP [n=30 (18%)], followed by Acinetobacter baumannii [n=23 (14%)], Klebsiella pneumoniae [n=18 (11%)]. In HAP group Acinetobacter baumannii [n=62 (41%)] was the commonest agent followed by Pseudomonas species [n=24 (16%)], E. coli [n=17 (11%)], Klebsiella pneumoniae [n=16 (10%)]. ESCAPE group of bacteria were isolated in 94 cases (104 isolates) in HCAP and 104 cases (144 isolates) in HAP group (p=0.001). Antibiotic resistance From 87 cases in HCAP group, and 134 cases in HAP group, antibiotic resistant bacteria were isolated. In HCAP, among patients who had received antibiotics prior to hospitalization, MDRS and XDRS were isolated from 21% and 32% of cases, respectively. (p=0.349). From, 254 positive cultures, 91(40%) isolates in HCAP and 145 (59%) in HAP (p=0.000) isolates were resistant to minimum one category of antibiotics used in an Empirical antibiotic regimen. Clinical severity and outcome: Among 318 cases, mean APACHE - II score was 18.60 ± 7.741. [Mean APACHE - II score in HCAP=17.55 ± 6.406, and in HAP=19.74 ± 8.843]. There were 98 deaths during the study, out of which 38 (23%) occurred in HCAP group and 60 (39%) in HAP group [VAP - 28 (44%), nvHAP - 32 (36%). Using logistic regression analysis, APACHE - II score ≥ 17 [HCAP - OR=13.99, HAP - OR=10.802], Septic shock [HCAP - OR=4.457, HAP - OR=6.933] and Radiological feature - consolidation [HCAP - OR=2.866, HAP - OR=1.533], were strongest predictors of in-hospital mortality.