This article provides an update on progress toward establishing pulmonary and critical care medicine (PCCM) fellowship training as one of the first four subspecialties to be recognized and supported by the Chinese government. Designed and implemented throughout 2013 and 2014 by a collaborative effort of the Chinese Thoracic Society (CTS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), 12 leading Chinese hospitals enrolled a total of 64 fellows into standardized PCCM training programs with common curricula, educational activities, and assessment measures. Supplemental educational materials, online assessment tools, and institutional site visits designed to evaluate and provide feedback on the programs’ progress are being provided by CHEST. As a result of this initial progress, the Chinese government, through the Chinese Medical Doctor’s Association, endorsed the concept of subspecialty fellowship training in China, with PCCM as one of the four pilot subspecialties to be operationalized nationwide in 2016, followed by implementation across other subspecialties by 2020. This article also reflects on the achievements of the training sites and the challenges they face and outlines plans to enhance and expand PCCM training and practice in China.