In the Landsperger study, acute care nurse practitioners (ACNPs) that had additional critical care specialty training were supervised by critical care specialists. This study was possible by the interprofessional study team that was assembled by Dr Wheeler and the guided experiential training program that they created and implemented at Vanderbilt. This new class of ICU providers was not made up of recent graduates left to unguided task-oriented work assignments; rather, the ACNPs of this study received 4 months of direct critical care specialist supervised, hands-on, and mentored patient care experience. The formal training paradigm included direct supervision of the ability to recognize critical illness, perform initial patient stabilization tasks, broker the admission process, and ensuring that time-sensitive treatments and procedures were performed successfully when they were needed. The effectiveness of ACNP communication skills that are critical for effective intensivist oversight was documented. Importantly, their professional and procedural competencies were reviewed by critical care specialists who completed formal evaluations of their performance.