METHODS: Adult male SD rats were subjected to chronic intermittent hypoxia or normoxia and were treated with hydroxyfasudil (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection) or the vehicle for 6 weeks. The morphological features of cardiac remodeling were observed using light and electron microscopy. The mRNA expression of TNF-a, IL-6, MCP-1, TGF-b1 and NF-kB p65 was assessed with RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of MYPT1, as well as the protein levels of RhoA, NF-kB p65, Bax, cleaved-caspase3 were evaluated using Western blotting. The extent of cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay (TUNEL).