RESULTS: Forty-five procedures with a mean age 53.9±14 were reviewed. All procedures were performed under moderate sedation. Two procedures were flexible rigid medical thoracoscopy and forty three were rigid thoracoscopy. None of the procedures had a complication related to entering an empty pleural space (0/45). The predominant indication/diagnosis were for pleural tuberculosis (24.4%, 11/45). A malignant diagnosis was made in 33.3% (15/45) which included adenocarcinoma (10/15), mesothelioma (3/15), sarcomatoid carcinoma (2/15).