RESULTS: Four patients with tracheobronchial leeches were enrolled. Among whom one-half were male and the mean age was 51.0 ± 3.5 years old (range, 48 years to 58 years). All the patients came from rural areas and had a history of drinking field unboiled water from streams, pools and springs. 3 patients had dyspnea, 1 case had cough and bloody sputum and 1 patient had mild anemia. The peripheral blood eosinophile granulocytes of 3 patients were increased. The coagulation function of all the patients was normal and all patients had no hemorrhagic tendency. Chest computed tomography showed tracheal foreign bodies of 2 cases, the basal segment of the lower lobe of the right lung had a lesion with high density in 1 case, and some exudation in the medial segment of the right middle lobe in the other case. Bronchoscopy revealed a leech in trachea of 3 cases and one leech in the right medial basal segmental bronchus of 1 case. 3 leeches were removed via cryotherapy by flexible bronchoscope and 1 leech was taken out through foreign body forceps by flexible bronchoscope. The symptoms of all the cases were improved obviously after removed the leeches.