RESULTS: Patients diagnosed with septic shock had significantly lower serum concentration of VDBP than the patients diagnosed with severe and moderate sepsis (p < 0.05). In addition, the serum levels of VDBP at the time of admission to the hospital were significantly lower in non-survivors than in the survivors (140.1±24.5mg/L vs. 170.3±25.4mg/L, p<0.001). In the mouse model, VDBP levels in CLP operated mice exhibited bimodal alterations, with a continuous and significant reduction in VDBP levels from day1 onwards (P< 0.001). This was followed by a progressive elevation reaching the initial concentrations at day 7 post CLP in survivors which displayed a negative relationship between serum VDBP and strength and duration of organ lesion. The immunohistochemical examination for VDBP indicated no reactivity in liver sections with tissue damage in the CLP group. However, VDBP immunoreactivity was observed in the infiltrating lymphocytes and multiple Kupffer cells and granuloma formation was also positive for the CLP group. The lung, blood, airway secretions, macrophages and granuloma were positive for VDBP in CLP mice. VDBP positive cell accumulation was observed in the splenic sinus of both the control mice and CLP treated mice. However, the number of cells positive for VDBP in the spleen was significantly higher in the CLP treated mice than in the control mice.