This study explored the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound for diagnosing transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN).
Ultrasound was performed by one export. Patients were placed in a supine, lateral recumbent, or prone position. The probe was placed perpendicular or parallel to the ribs, and each region of the lung was scanned. The scan results were compared with conventional chest radiographic results.
A total of 1,358 infants were included in this study. We identified 412 cases without pulmonary diseases, 228 TTN cases, 358 respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) cases, 85 meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) cases, 215 infectious pneumonia cases, and 60 other cases. The primary ultrasonic characteristic of TTN was pulmonary edema. “White lung” or a “compact B-line” were only observed in severe cases, whereas TTN primarily presented as pulmonary interstitial syndrome or “double lung point.” Furthermore, double lung point could appear during the recovery period of severe TTN or RDS, MAS, and pneumonia. Lung consolidation with air bronchograms was not observed in TTN patients. The results showed that white lung or a compact B-line exhibited a sensitivity of 33.8% and a specificity of 91.3% in diagnosing TTN, whereas double lung point exhibited a sensitivity of 45.6% and a specificity of 94.8% in diagnosing severe TTN.
Pulmonary edema, alveolar-interstitial syndrome, double lung point, white lung, and compact B-line are the primary ultrasound characteristics of TTN. Ultrasonic diagnosis of TTN based on these findings is accurate and reliable. TTN can be ruled out in the presence of lung consolidation with air bronchograms.