In-laboratory, attended polysomnography has long been the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). In recent years, economic pressures and long wait times have driven interest in home sleep testing, which has, in turn, led to the development of algorithms that bypass the sleep laboratory in favor of portable monitoring studies and in-home initiation of positive airway pressure therapy. For appropriately selected outpatients, evidence is accumulating that portable monitors are a reasonable substitute for in-laboratory polysomnography. In the inpatient setting, in which SDB is both highly prevalent and associated with adverse outcomes in certain populations, the literature is evolving on the use of portable monitors to expedite diagnosis and treatment of SDB. This review discusses society guidelines and recent research in the growing field of portable monitoring.