In this scenario, the patient has been well-counseled to quit smoking. Counseling services, also referred to as Behavior Change Interventions, are reimbursable services provided by qualified health-care personnel (ie, physician and nonphysician billing providers) for the purpose of promoting health or preventing injury, and there is good evidence supporting the effectiveness of brief counseling interventions of this type. The level of Behavior Change Intervention depends on the amount of time dedicated to the endeavor. Clinicians should first report the established patient visit code (99211-99215) reflecting the level of service provided for the underlying condition (in this case, asthma: International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification 9 [ICD-9-CM] code 493.90), and consider the time spent in counseling separately. Cessation counseling that lasts less than 3 min is considered to be part of the standard E/M service. For patients who require additional counseling time, the clinician may also report current procedural terminology code 99406 for intermediate (3-10 min), or 99407 for intensive (> 10 min) of service. Primarily use the ICD-9-CM code 305.1 (Tobacco Dependence) to report the smoking cessation counseling service, along with the appropriate code for the underlying condition. For patients who do not currently smoke but who are at risk for initiation or relapse, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has created two G codes that reflect counseling services aimed at preventing tobacco use. Clinicians may report G0436 for intermediate (3-10 min) and G0437 for intensive (> 10 min) of service. Counseling services provided by the same practitioner, on the same day as other, separately identifiable E/M services, should be reported using the -25 current procedural terminology code modifier (eg, 99407-25).