0
Recent Advances in Chest Medicine |

Inflammatory Diseases of the Lung Induced by Conventional Cigarette SmokeCigarette Smoke-Induced Lung Inflammation: Review: A Review

Laura E. Crotty Alexander, MD; Stephanie Shin, MD; John H. Hwang, MS
Author and Funding Information

From the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System; and University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Laura E. Crotty Alexander, MD, VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Dr, MC 111J, San Diego, CA 92161; e-mail: lcrotty@ucsd.edu


Drs Crotty Alexander and Shin contributed equally.

FUNDING/SUPPORT: Dr Crotty Alexander and Mr Hwang’s salaries were supported by the VA Career Development Award (CDA)-2 [Award 1IK2BX001313], PI Dr Crotty Alexander, from the US Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development (BLR&D) Program.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2015;148(5):1307-1322. doi:10.1378/chest.15-0409
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Smoking-induced lung diseases were extremely rare prior to the 20th century. With commercialization and introduction of machine-made cigarettes, worldwide use skyrocketed and several new pulmonary diseases have been recognized. The majority of pulmonary diseases caused by cigarette smoke (CS) are inflammatory in origin. Airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages have altered inflammatory signaling in response to CS, which leads to recruitment of lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and mast cells to the lungs—depending on the signaling pathway (nuclear factor-κB, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activated. Multiple proteins are upregulated and secreted in response to CS exposure, and many of these have immunomodulatory activities that contribute to disease pathogenesis. In particular, metalloproteases 9 and 12, surfactant protein D, antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and human β defensin 2), and IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 have been found in higher quantities in the lungs of smokers with ongoing inflammation. However, many underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced inflammatory diseases are not yet known. We review here the known cellular and molecular mechanisms of CS-induced diseases, including COPD, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic rhinosinusitis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and chronic bacterial infections. We also discuss inflammation induced by secondhand and thirdhand smoke exposure and the pulmonary diseases that result. New targeted antiinflammatory therapeutic options are currently under investigation and hopefully will yield promising results for the treatment of these highly prevalent smoking-induced diseases.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
Airways Inflammation and COPD*: Epithelial-Neutrophil Interactions
PubMed Articles
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543