The purpose of this article is to provide an update on evidence-based methods for mediastinal staging in patients with lung cancer. This is a review of the recently published studies and a summary of relevant guidelines addressing the role of CT scan, PET scan, endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), and mediastinoscopy as pertinent to lung cancer staging and restaging. The focus is on how these diagnostic methods fit into the best algorithm for patients with chest imaging abnormalities suspected of malignant disease. Several studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews specifically targeted the role of PET scan, EBUS-TBNA, and mediastinoscopy for detecting mediastinal lymph node involvement in patients suffering from lung cancer. Based on the recommendations from the currently published guidelines, algorithms of care are proposed for staging and restaging of the mediastinum.