Taking this into account, as well as the fact that for cN1 lung cancer a lobe-specific mediastinal examination is sufficient, the rationale for using EUS or EUS-B as a selected complementary test was clear when designing ASTER2. EBUS with transbronchial needle aspiration alone was performed in 75% of patients, whereas a combined procedure was carried out in 25%. We acknowledge the observation that in eight out of 14 patients with false-negative endosonography, the missed metastases were located in stations 4L, 7, or 8. These are reachable for EUS or EUS-B. However, in six of these (75%), the cytologic samples obtained by EBUS with transbronchial needle aspiration were representative for lymphoid tissue. That 25G needles, or a systematic EUS or EUS-B would have made the difference is possible (as discussed), but it remains to be shown for these particular cN1 patients.