COPD seems related to poor outcome in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, many patients in the ICU with COPD do not require intubation but can also develop pneumonia in the ICU. We, therefore, compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with ICU-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP) with and without underlying COPD.
We prospectively assessed the characteristics, microbiology, systemic inflammatory response, and survival of 279 consecutive patients with ICUAP clustered according to underlying COPD or not. The primary end point was 90-day survival.
Seventy-one patients (25%) had COPD. The proportion of VAP was less frequent in patients with COPD: 30 (42%) compared with 126 (61%) in patients without COPD (P = .011). Patients with COPD were older; were more frequently men, smokers, and alcohol abusers; and more frequently had previous use of noninvasive ventilation. The rate of microbiologic diagnosis was similar between groups, with a higher rate of Aspergillus species and a lower rate of Enterobacteriaceae in patients with COPD. We found lower levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in patients with COPD without previous intubation. The 90-day mortality was higher in patients with COPD (40 [57%] vs 74 [37%] in patients without COPD, P = .003). Among others, COPD was independently associated with decreased 90-day survival in the overall population (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.11-3.40; P = .020); this association was observed only in patients with VAP but not in those without previous intubation.
COPD was independently associated with decreased 90-day survival in patients with VAP but not in those without previous intubation.