Both postural changes and compensatory maneuvers attempt to reduce the amount of food and liquid that is aspirated. Postural changes involve a speech-language pathologist’s coaching of a patient to either place his or her chin down, or turn his or her head to one side at the time of swallowing. Compensatory maneuvers include a patient’s attempts to swallow small amounts, swallow multiple times, purposely coughing each time after swallowing, or maintaining the larynx in a superior position with a hand at the time of swallowing (referred to as the Mendelsohn maneuver). Therapeutic exercises attempt to improve underlying swallowing function. Therapeutic exercises involve progressive strengthening and coordination of swallowing muscles. In outpatients with chronic swallowing disorders, regular therapeutic exercise sessions have demonstrated feasibility and benefit in several small clinical trials.68-70 However, a review of therapeutic exercises concluded that these studies included patients with heterogenous disorders, varied protocols, and different outcome measures.71 Therefore, the efficacy of therapeutic exercises is currently uncertain. The trial most applicable to patients recently extubated involved 306 inpatients with acute cerebrovascular accidents and swallowing dysfunction. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: (1) usual care without speech-language pathologists, or either a (2) high intensity or (3) low intensity of organized speech-language pathology interventions, consisting of dietary texture modification, compensatory strategies, and therapeutic exercises. Patients in the high-intensity group received more frequent instruction from speech-language pathologists and also received more directed swallowing exercises. After 6 months, patients receiving both low-intensity and high-intensity speech-language pathology treatment had a significant reduction in swallowing-related medical complications, chest infection, and death or nursing home admission when compared with those only receiving usual care. Furthermore, higher-intensity speech-language pathology care was associated with an increased return to normal diet after 6 months as compared with the lower-intensity group.72 These bundled interventions hold promise and should be studied further in other patient populations, including those recovering from critical illness.