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Recent Advances in Chest Medicine |

Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Aspergillosis SyndromesAspergillus Pulmonary Syndromes

Karen C. Patterson, MD; Mary E. Strek, MD, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

From the Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division (Dr Patterson), University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, PA; and the Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care (Dr Strek), University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Karen C. Patterson, MD, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, University of Pennsylvania, 828 Gates, 3600 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA 19104; e-mail: karen.patterson@uphs.upenn.edu


Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2014;146(5):1358-1368. doi:10.1378/chest.14-0917
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Both inherited and acquired immunodeficiency and chronic pulmonary disease predispose to the development of a variety of pulmonary syndromes in response to Aspergillus, a fungus that is ubiquitous in the environment. These syndromes include invasive aspergillosis, which is now recognized to occur in patients with critical illness without neutropenia and in those with mild degrees of immunosuppression, including from corticosteroid use in the setting of COPD. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis includes simple aspergilloma, which is occasionally complicated by life-threatening hemoptysis, and progressive destructive cavitary disease requiring antifungal therapy. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis occurs almost exclusively in patients with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Recent advances in each of these syndromes include a greater understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and hosts at risk; improved diagnostic algorithms; and the availability of more effective and well-tolerated therapies. Improvement in outcomes for Aspergillus pulmonary syndromes requires that physicians recognize the varied and sometimes subtle presentations, be aware of populations at risk of illness, and institute potentially life-saving therapies early in the disease course.

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