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Commentary |

Arterial Lines in the ICUA Need for Randomized Trials of Arterial Lines: A Call for Rigorous Controlled Trials FREE TO VIEW

Allan Garland, MD
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From the Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Allan Garland, MD, University of Manitoba, Room GF-222, 820 Sherbrook St, Winnipeg, MB, R3A 1R9, Canada; e-mail: agarland@hsc.mb.ca


Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2014;146(5):1155-1158. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1212
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Published online

The appropriate justification for using a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention is that it provides benefit to patients, society, or both. For decades, indwelling arterial catheters have been used very commonly in patients in the ICU, despite a complete absence of data addressing whether they confer any such benefits. Both of the main uses of arterial catheters, BP monitoring and blood sampling for laboratory testing, can be done without these invasive devices. Prominent among complications of arterial catheters are bloodstream infections and arterial thrombosis. To my knowledge, only a single observational study has assessed a patient-centered outcome related to arterial catheter use, and it found no evidence that they reduce hospital mortality in any patient subgroup. Given the potential dangers, widespread use, and uncertainty about consequences of arterial catheter use in ICUs, equipoise exists and randomized trials are needed. Multiple studies in different, well-characterized, patient subgroups are needed to clarify whether arterial catheters influence outcomes. These studies should assess the range of relevant outcomes, including mortality, medical resource use, patient comfort, complications, and costs.

The only appropriate justification for using a diagnostic or therapeutic intervention is that it provides benefit to patients, society, or both. In the context of ICU care, the patient-centered benefit that receives the most attention is survival; however, many other outcomes are relevant to patients. These include rates of complications, care-related pain and suffering, subsequent physical and cognitive functioning, and quality of life.1 Even if an intervention provides no benefit to patients, it could benefit society in the form of lower costs, producing better cost-effectiveness of care. Because every intervention has real costs and real risks, interventions without such benefits should not be routinely used.

Despite decades of effectiveness research, there are numerous interventions used in medical practice for which there are no data directly addressing how they influence relevant outcomes. While physiologic rationale, anecdotes, and other forms of empirical reasoning have formed the basis for many of the interventions used in clinical practice, these are fraught with dangers. Our physiologic understanding is imperfect. Anecdotes, or the fact that an intervention has been used for many years and, therefore, “must” be of benefit, are not scientific arguments.2 While such arguments go back more than a century,3 there are numerous modern examples of interventions that made sense, yet when studied were proven to be of no benefit, or even harmful. ICU therapies in this category include nesiritide in severe congestive heart failure,4 extracranial-intracranial bypass for ischemic stroke,5 hyperventilation for traumatic brain injury,6 low-dose dopamine in early renal dysfunction,7 and starches for volume resuscitation.8 Even though data can be imperfect, and we will always be limited by the best data available to us, high-quality data trump such reasoning.

The best example in the realm of physiologic monitoring is pulmonary artery catheters (PACs). The rationale for PAC use is strong: Studies have consistently shown that expert clinicians cannot accurately estimate the parameters measured by PACs.912 Although PAC use has risks and there was a lack of evidence for any benefit from this device,13 by the 1990s millions were used yearly.14 Now, after 14 randomized trials, no subgroup of critically ill patients has been identified for whom PAC use improves clinically relevant outcomes.15,16

With this background, we now discuss the indwelling arterial catheter (AC), a technology that is routinely and very extensively used in ICUs—without evidence about its effect on relevant outcomes. Approximately one-third of all patients in the ICU in the United States receive an AC, with even higher use in some subgroups.17 This amounts to almost 2 million patients receiving ACs yearly,18 and, with replacements and reinsertions, the number of AC procedures and catheters is likely much higher. Use of AC appears to be even more common in Canada.19

ACs are used mainly for BP monitoring, and to facilitate diagnostic blood testing, including arterial blood gas analysis. However, these goals do not require an AC. BP can be monitored noninvasively. Blood drawn for laboratory testing can be obtained by intermittent arterial puncture or phlebotomy.

A commonly held, but erroneous, belief is that systolic and diastolic BP measurements from ACs are “correct,” while noninvasive values are a problematic surrogate. It is true that automated noninvasive BP measurements are prone to various artifacts,20 and that values can occasionally differ substantially between the two methods.2124 On the other hand, virtually everything that is known about the epidemiology of BP, and the information we obtain about a given person’s usual, outpatient BP, derive from noninvasive measurements. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro studies have identified a variety of artifacts in AC-derived BP measurements that can result in values that are too high or too low.20,2527 With both types of BP measurements prone to inaccuracies, the question of true importance is whether patient management with one vs the other modality results in differences in relevant outcomes. To my knowledge only two human studies, both observational, have sought to address this question. In a single-center study of 150 patients, Lakhal et al24 found that automated noninvasive BP identified hypotension, defined as AC-derived mean arterial pressure < 65 mm Hg, with a sensitivity and specificity of 95%. The only study that has addressed a patient-centered outcome is a propensity-matched analysis of hospital mortality performed on the Project IMPACT database by Gershengorn et al.28 That study found no difference in mortality in the primary cohort of medical-type patients who were mechanically ventilated, or eight of nine secondary cohorts; however, among almost 11,000 patients needing vasopressors for shock, mortality was higher in patients who received an AC (OR, 1.08; P = .008).28 Regarding ACs to facilitate laboratory blood testing, their presence is associated with excessive testing,29 even independent of the test results.30 Not only does this increase costs, but excessive phlebotomy promotes anemia and consequent blood transfusion.31,32 In general, more testing has not been associated with improved clinical outcomes.33,34

The direct complications related to ACs include, but are not limited to, infection and arterial thrombosis.35,36 Although AC devices look like peripheral IV catheters, the rate of bloodstream infections associated with them is 2.5-fold higher.37,38 The poor recognition of this danger may result from poor concordance between AC tip cultures vs blood cultures drawn through the AC, and to the finding that infected ACs rarely appear infected to the naked eye.39 Thrombosis related to ACs is not rare, though most of the consequent ischemia is temporary.35,4043

In the face of these risks, why then are ACs used so ubiquitously? Intensivists trained in centers where AC use is routine often never critically question the teaching that critically ill patients “require” ACs. While it seems plausible that measuring BP every 100 milliseconds with an AC would lead to better outcomes for patients with shock on vasoactive drugs, the only study that has addressed this question, to my knowledge, has not found it to be true.28 Another common rationale for AC use is to avoid patient discomfort from percutaneous phlebotomy, or frequent BP cuff inflations. And while these are legitimate concerns about patient-centered outcomes, this calculus must include the discomfort of AC insertion, and must balance discomfort with the risks to life and limb related to ACs.

The widespread use of ACs without evidence for benefit is likely due, in part, to the fact that clinical practice patterns are often based on “expert opinion, historical practice, and blind acceptance, rather than on an adequate evidence base”.44 Five years ago, after I gave a lecture on ACs at a national meeting, a senior intensivist stated that even if ACs confer no benefit to patients or to society, they are valuable because they can make physicians feel more comfortable. Such arguments are difficult to countenance. The medical system exists to improve the health of patients and of society. Unless the intervention is free and carries no potential risks, it is a slippery slope to justify it based on comfort or convenience of the caregivers.

Given the potential dangers, widespread use, and uncertainty about consequences of AC use, high-quality, randomized trials are needed. There is equipoise for this question. As summarized previously, these devices carry risks. In reminding us about the Hippocratic imperative, Singer and Glynne44 have cautioned us that “superficially attractive, short-term benefits may camouflage underlying tendency to cause harm” and reminded us that the “major advances of intensive care medicine in the last 20 years have been related more to the recognition and removal of harmful practices rather than to any novel pharmacological or mechanical interventions.”44 Wide variation in AC utilization represents the uncertainty.17,45 The evolution of research on PACs, previously discussed, is instructive. Cautions about placing ACs was a finalist among critical care expert opinion recommendations in the Choosing Wisely Campaign of the American Board of Internal Medicine.46 The sole observational study on clinically relevant outcomes from AC use did not show a benefit.28

Just as for PACs, multiple studies in different, well-characterized, patient subgroups will be needed to clarify whether ACs influence outcomes. These studies should assess the range of relevant outcomes, including mortality, medical resource use, patient comfort, complications, and costs. Of course, even if no patient subgroup is found to benefit, these devices will still be appropriate in rare patients when no other modality allows for obtaining needed information, such as when meaningful noninvasive BP measurements cannot be obtained.

Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The author has reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

AC

arterial catheter

PAC

pulmonary artery catheter

Angus DC, Carlet J; 2002 Brussels Roundtable Participants. Surviving intensive care: a report from the 2002 Brussels Roundtable. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(3):368-377. [PubMed]
 
Zazzle t-shirts. Zazzle website. http://www.zazzle.ca/the_plural_of_anecdote_is_not_data_tee_shirts-235279170565465750. Accessed May 15, 2014.
 
Blood-letting. BMJ. 1871;1(533):283-284. [CrossRef]
 
Topol EJ. Nesiritide - not verified. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(2):113-116. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The EC/IC Bypass Study Group. Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Results of an international randomized trial. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(19):1191-1200. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Muizelaar JP, Marmarou A, Ward JD, et al. Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury: a randomized clinical trial. J Neurosurg. 1991;75(5):731-739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S, Hickling K, Myburgh J. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9248):2139-2143. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(7):678-688. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dawson NV, Connors AF Jr, Speroff T, Kemka A, Shaw P, Arkes HR. Hemodynamic assessment in managing the critically ill: is physician confidence warranted? Med Decis Making. 1993;13(3):258-266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Connors AF Jr, Dawson NV, Shaw PK, Montenegro HD, Nara AR, Martin L. Hemodynamic status in critically ill patients with and without acute heart disease. Chest. 1990;98(5):1200-1206. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Staudinger T, Locker GJ, Laczika K, et al. Diagnostic validity of pulmonary artery catheterization for residents at an intensive care unit. J Trauma. 1998;44(5):902-906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Connors AF Jr, McCaffree DR, Gray BA. Evaluation of right-heart catheterization in the critically ill patient without acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1983;308(5):263-267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Robin ED. Death by pulmonary artery flow-directed catheter. Time for a moratorium? Chest. 1987;92(4):727-731. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pulmonary Artery Catheter Consensus conference. Pulmonary Artery Catheter Consensus conference: consensus statement. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(6):910-925. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW, et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2005;294(13):1664-1670. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network;Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, et al. Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(21):2213-2224. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gershengorn HB, Garland A, Kramer A, Scales DC, Rubenfeld G, Wunsch H. Variation of arterial and central venous catheter use in United States intensive care units. Anesthesiology. 2014;120(3):650-664. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
 Critical Care Statistics in the United States. Mount Prospect, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine; 2012.
 
McIntyre LA, Hébert PC, Fergusson D, Cook DJ, Aziz A; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. A survey of Canadian intensivists’ resuscitation practices in early septic shock. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):R74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fessler HE, Shade D. Measurement of vascular pressures.. In:Tobin MJ., ed. Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998:91-106.
 
Lehman LW, Saeed M, Talmor D, Mark R, Malhotra A. Methods of blood pressure measurement in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(1):34-40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horowitz D, Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Zarich S, Garland A, Manthous CA. Arterial line or cuff BP? Chest. 2013;143(1):270-271. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lodato RF. Arterial pressure monitoring.. In:Tobin MJ., ed. Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998:733-749.
 
Lakhal K, Macq C, Ehrmann S, Boulain T, Capdevila X. Noninvasive monitoring of blood pressure in the critically ill: reliability according to the cuff site (arm, thigh, or ankle). Crit Care Med. 2012;40(4):1207-1213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dorman T, Breslow MJ, Lipsett PA, et al. Radial artery pressure monitoring underestimates central arterial pressure during vasopressor therapy in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(10):1646-1649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kleinman B. Understanding natural frequency and damping and how they relate to the measurement of blood pressure. J Clin Monit. 1989;5(2):137-147. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Grossman W. Pressure measurement.. In:Baim DS., ed. Cardiac Catheterization, Angiography, and Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 2006:133-147.
 
Gershengorn H, Wunsch H, Scales D, et al. Relationship between. arterial catheter use and hospital mortality in intensive care units [published online ahead of print September 8, 2014]. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3297.
 
Low LL, Harrington GR, Stoltzfus DP. The effect of arterial lines on blood-drawing practices and costs in intensive care units. Chest. 1995;108(1):216-219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Muakkassa FF, Rutledge R, Fakhry SM, Meyer AA, Sheldon GF. ABGs and arterial lines: the relationship to unnecessarily drawn arterial blood gas samples. J Trauma. 1990;30(9):1087-1093. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Salisbury AC, Reid KJ, Alexander KP, et al. Diagnostic blood loss from phlebotomy and hospital-acquired anemia during acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(18):1646-1653. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Corwin HL, Parsonnet KC, Gettinger A. RBC transfusion in the ICU: is there a reason? Chest. 1995;108(3):767-771. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Metnitz PGH, Reiter A, Jordan B, Lang T. More interventions do not necessarily improve outcome in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(8):1586-1593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Garland A, Shaman Z, Baron J, Connors AF Jr. Physician-attributable differences in intensive care unit costs: a single-center study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(11):1206-1210. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Scheer B, Perel A, Pfeiffer UJ. Clinical review: complications and risk factors of peripheral arterial catheters used for haemodynamic monitoring in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. Crit Care. 2002;6(3):199-204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Durie M, Beckmann U, Gillies DM. Incidents relating to arterial cannulation as identified in 7,525 reports submitted to the Australian incident monitoring study (AIMS-ICU). Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30(1):60-65. [PubMed]
 
O’Horo JC, Maki DG, Krupp AE, Safdar N. Arterial catheters as a source of bloodstream infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(6):1334-1339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maki DG, Kluger DM, Crnich CJ. The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(9):1159-1171. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Thomas F, Orme JF Jr, Clemmer TP, Burke JP, Elliott CG, Gardner RM. A prospective comparison of arterial catheter blood and catheter-tip cultures in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1984;12(10):860-862. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brotschi B, Hug MI, Latal B, et al. Incidence and predictors of indwelling arterial catheter-related thrombosis in children. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9(6):1157-1162. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Martin C, Saux P, Papazian L, Gouin F. Long-term arterial cannulation in ICU patients using the radial artery or dorsalis pedis artery. Chest. 2001;119(3):901-906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bedford RF. Radial arterial function following percutaneous cannulation with 18- and 20-gauge catheters. Anesthesiology. 1977;47(1):37-39. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bedford RF, Wollman H. Complications of percutaneous radial-artery cannulation: an objective prospective study in man. Anesthesiology. 1973;38(3):228-236. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Singer M, Glynne P. Treating critical illness: the importance of first doing no harm. PLoS Med. 2005;2(6):e167. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Groeger JS, Guntupalli KK, Strosberg M, et al. Descriptive analysis of critical care units in the United States: patient characteristics and intensive care unit utilization. Crit Care Med. 1993;21(2):279-291. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fowler R. Preliminary ABIM ‘Choosing Wisely’ critical care, pulmonary guidelines. Presented at: American Thoracic Society International Conference; May 17-22, 2013; Philadelphia, PA.
 

Figures

Tables

References

Angus DC, Carlet J; 2002 Brussels Roundtable Participants. Surviving intensive care: a report from the 2002 Brussels Roundtable. Intensive Care Med. 2003;29(3):368-377. [PubMed]
 
Zazzle t-shirts. Zazzle website. http://www.zazzle.ca/the_plural_of_anecdote_is_not_data_tee_shirts-235279170565465750. Accessed May 15, 2014.
 
Blood-letting. BMJ. 1871;1(533):283-284. [CrossRef]
 
Topol EJ. Nesiritide - not verified. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(2):113-116. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The EC/IC Bypass Study Group. Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Results of an international randomized trial. N Engl J Med. 1985;313(19):1191-1200. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Muizelaar JP, Marmarou A, Ward JD, et al. Adverse effects of prolonged hyperventilation in patients with severe head injury: a randomized clinical trial. J Neurosurg. 1991;75(5):731-739. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S, Hickling K, Myburgh J. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9248):2139-2143. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zarychanski R, Abou-Setta AM, Turgeon AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2013;309(7):678-688. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dawson NV, Connors AF Jr, Speroff T, Kemka A, Shaw P, Arkes HR. Hemodynamic assessment in managing the critically ill: is physician confidence warranted? Med Decis Making. 1993;13(3):258-266. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Connors AF Jr, Dawson NV, Shaw PK, Montenegro HD, Nara AR, Martin L. Hemodynamic status in critically ill patients with and without acute heart disease. Chest. 1990;98(5):1200-1206. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Staudinger T, Locker GJ, Laczika K, et al. Diagnostic validity of pulmonary artery catheterization for residents at an intensive care unit. J Trauma. 1998;44(5):902-906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Connors AF Jr, McCaffree DR, Gray BA. Evaluation of right-heart catheterization in the critically ill patient without acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1983;308(5):263-267. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Robin ED. Death by pulmonary artery flow-directed catheter. Time for a moratorium? Chest. 1987;92(4):727-731. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pulmonary Artery Catheter Consensus conference. Pulmonary Artery Catheter Consensus conference: consensus statement. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(6):910-925. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shah MR, Hasselblad V, Stevenson LW, et al. Impact of the pulmonary artery catheter in critically ill patients: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA. 2005;294(13):1664-1670. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Clinical Trials Network;Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, et al. Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(21):2213-2224. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gershengorn HB, Garland A, Kramer A, Scales DC, Rubenfeld G, Wunsch H. Variation of arterial and central venous catheter use in United States intensive care units. Anesthesiology. 2014;120(3):650-664. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
 Critical Care Statistics in the United States. Mount Prospect, IL: Society of Critical Care Medicine; 2012.
 
McIntyre LA, Hébert PC, Fergusson D, Cook DJ, Aziz A; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. A survey of Canadian intensivists’ resuscitation practices in early septic shock. Crit Care. 2007;11(4):R74. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fessler HE, Shade D. Measurement of vascular pressures.. In:Tobin MJ., ed. Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998:91-106.
 
Lehman LW, Saeed M, Talmor D, Mark R, Malhotra A. Methods of blood pressure measurement in the ICU. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(1):34-40. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horowitz D, Amoateng-Adjepong Y, Zarich S, Garland A, Manthous CA. Arterial line or cuff BP? Chest. 2013;143(1):270-271. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lodato RF. Arterial pressure monitoring.. In:Tobin MJ., ed. Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1998:733-749.
 
Lakhal K, Macq C, Ehrmann S, Boulain T, Capdevila X. Noninvasive monitoring of blood pressure in the critically ill: reliability according to the cuff site (arm, thigh, or ankle). Crit Care Med. 2012;40(4):1207-1213. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dorman T, Breslow MJ, Lipsett PA, et al. Radial artery pressure monitoring underestimates central arterial pressure during vasopressor therapy in critically ill surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(10):1646-1649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kleinman B. Understanding natural frequency and damping and how they relate to the measurement of blood pressure. J Clin Monit. 1989;5(2):137-147. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Grossman W. Pressure measurement.. In:Baim DS., ed. Cardiac Catheterization, Angiography, and Intervention. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 2006:133-147.
 
Gershengorn H, Wunsch H, Scales D, et al. Relationship between. arterial catheter use and hospital mortality in intensive care units [published online ahead of print September 8, 2014]. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3297.
 
Low LL, Harrington GR, Stoltzfus DP. The effect of arterial lines on blood-drawing practices and costs in intensive care units. Chest. 1995;108(1):216-219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Muakkassa FF, Rutledge R, Fakhry SM, Meyer AA, Sheldon GF. ABGs and arterial lines: the relationship to unnecessarily drawn arterial blood gas samples. J Trauma. 1990;30(9):1087-1093. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Salisbury AC, Reid KJ, Alexander KP, et al. Diagnostic blood loss from phlebotomy and hospital-acquired anemia during acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(18):1646-1653. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Corwin HL, Parsonnet KC, Gettinger A. RBC transfusion in the ICU: is there a reason? Chest. 1995;108(3):767-771. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Metnitz PGH, Reiter A, Jordan B, Lang T. More interventions do not necessarily improve outcome in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30(8):1586-1593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Garland A, Shaman Z, Baron J, Connors AF Jr. Physician-attributable differences in intensive care unit costs: a single-center study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174(11):1206-1210. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Scheer B, Perel A, Pfeiffer UJ. Clinical review: complications and risk factors of peripheral arterial catheters used for haemodynamic monitoring in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine. Crit Care. 2002;6(3):199-204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Durie M, Beckmann U, Gillies DM. Incidents relating to arterial cannulation as identified in 7,525 reports submitted to the Australian incident monitoring study (AIMS-ICU). Anaesth Intensive Care. 2002;30(1):60-65. [PubMed]
 
O’Horo JC, Maki DG, Krupp AE, Safdar N. Arterial catheters as a source of bloodstream infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2014;42(6):1334-1339. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maki DG, Kluger DM, Crnich CJ. The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81(9):1159-1171. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Thomas F, Orme JF Jr, Clemmer TP, Burke JP, Elliott CG, Gardner RM. A prospective comparison of arterial catheter blood and catheter-tip cultures in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med. 1984;12(10):860-862. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brotschi B, Hug MI, Latal B, et al. Incidence and predictors of indwelling arterial catheter-related thrombosis in children. J Thromb Haemost. 2011;9(6):1157-1162. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Martin C, Saux P, Papazian L, Gouin F. Long-term arterial cannulation in ICU patients using the radial artery or dorsalis pedis artery. Chest. 2001;119(3):901-906. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bedford RF. Radial arterial function following percutaneous cannulation with 18- and 20-gauge catheters. Anesthesiology. 1977;47(1):37-39. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
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