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Original Research: COPD |

Family-Based Psychosocial Support and Education as Part of Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPDFamily-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPD: A Randomized Controlled Trial FREE TO VIEW

Alda Marques, PhD, PT; Cristina Jácome, MSc; Joana Cruz, MSc; Raquel Gabriel, MSc; Dina Brooks, PhD; Daniela Figueiredo, PhD
Author and Funding Information

From the School of Health Sciences (ESSUA) (Drs Marques and Figueiredo and Mss Jácome, Cruz, and Gabriel) and the Department of Health Sciences (SACS) (Mss Cruz and Gabriel), University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; the Unidade de Investigação e Formação sobre Adultos e Idosos (UNIFAI) (Drs Marques and Figueiredo), Porto, Portugal; and the Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science (Dr Brooks), Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Alda Marques, PhD, PT, School of Health Sciences, University of Aveiro (ESSUA), Agras do Crasto-Campus Universitário de Santiago, Edifício 30, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal; e-mail: amarques@ua.pt


This work was presented in abstract form at the European Respiratory Society International Congress, September 6-10, 2014, Munich, Germany, and received the 1st Grant for Best Abstracts in Rehabilitation and Chronic Care.

FUNDING/SUPPORT: This work was supported by Portuguese National Funds through FCT-Foundation for Science and Technology [Grant RIPD/CIF/109502/2009].

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2015;147(3):662-672. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1488
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BACKGROUND:  Involving family as part of the patient’s rehabilitation plan of care might enhance the management of COPD. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a family-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program on patients and family members’ coping strategies to manage COPD.

METHODS:  Family dyads (patient and family member) were randomly assigned to family-based (experimental) or conventional (control) PR. Patients from both groups underwent exercise training three times a week and psychosocial support and education once a week, during 12 weeks. Family members of the family-based PR attended the psychosocial support and education sessions together with patients. In the conventional PR, family members did not participate. Family coping and psychosocial adjustment to illness were assessed in patients and family members of both groups. Patients’ exercise tolerance, functional balance, muscle strength, and health-related quality of life were also measured. All measures were collected pre/post-program.

RESULTS:  Forty-two dyads participated (patients: FEV1, 70.4% ± 22.1% predicted). Patients (P = .048) and family members (P = .004) in the family-based PR had significantly greater improvements in family coping than the control group. Family members of the family-based PR had significantly greater changes in sexual relationships (P = .026) and in psychologic distress (P = .033) compared with the control group. Patients from both groups experienced significant improvements in exercise tolerance, functional balance, knee extensors strength, and health-related quality of life after intervention (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:  This research supports family-based PR programs to enhance coping and psychosocial adjustment to illness of the family system.

TRIAL REGISTRY:  ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02048306; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov

Figures in this Article

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) has been demonstrated to be effective for patients with COPD during stable periods or shortly after an exacerbation.1 This intervention has been also acknowledged as an important component of integrated care to manage COPD.1 However, successful integrated care interventions demand the involvement of both patients and family members in care planning, implementation, and oversight.24

The impact and challenges of living with a patient with COPD at all grades are well described,59 including physical and emotional burden and distressing symptoms (eg, anxiety and depression).5,10,11 Moreover, in some research, families have expressed the need for more information about disease management and for emotional support (eg, how to handle breathlessness, exacerbations, and anxiety symptoms).8,1012 Attending to patients’ and family members’ needs, preferences, and expectations might have potential to promote a more integrated and collaborative approach to care in COPD.13,14

Family interventions have been shown to improve family coping in chronic diseases such as diabetes,15 cardiovascular disease,16 and breast cancer,17 but their impact has received limited investigation in COPD. Furthermore, the use of more positive coping and problem-solving strategies has been associated with better health outcomes, namely less depression and anxiety1820 and improved exercise tolerance20 and quality of life19 in patients and better self-rated physical and mental health in family members5 living with COPD. However, only one study was identified that tested benefits of including family members in a multidisciplinary PR program.21

Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a family-based PR program on patients and family members’ coping strategies to manage COPD. It was hypothesized that participation in a family-based PR program would improve coping strategies of the family system without interfering with patients’ benefit obtained from a conventional PR program. The secondary aims were to explore its impact on family psychosocial adjustment to illness and patients’ exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life.

Study Design

This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Family dyads (ie, patient with COPD and family member) were randomly assigned to family-based PR (experimental) or conventional PR (control) and were unaware of group allocation. Participants were only told that they were entering a PR program that involved the family and that, depending on group allocation, the involvement of the family member would differ.

The outcome measures were collected from patients and family members 3 days before and after the PR program. The family-based PR was conducted at a different time than the conventional PR. Randomization was performed by a computer-generated schedule in random blocks of three. The allocation sequence was kept in sealed opaque envelopes by a researcher who was not involved in data collection. This researcher drew the envelope and scheduled dyads of both groups. Approval for this study was obtained from the Center Health Regional Administration (2011-02-28) and national data protection committee (8940/2012). Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. This study was reported according to CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) recommendations.22

Participants

Consecutive patients with stable COPD were recruited from three primary care centers. Patients were considered eligible for the study if they (1) were diagnosed with COPD according to the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria; (2) had a family member ≥ 18 years old who provided physical and/or supportive care, without receiving any payment; and (3) were able to provide informed consent to participate in the study. Patients were excluded if they had exacerbations or hospital admissions 1 month prior to the study, severe neurologic/musculoskeletal conditions, and/or unstable cardiovascular disease. Dyads were excluded if one of them presented severe psychiatric conditions or inability to understand and cooperate or if one of them refused to participate.

Intervention

In both groups, patients underwent 12 weeks of PR composed of exercise training and psychosocial support and education, conducted in primary care centers. Family members assigned to the family-based PR participated in the psychosocial support and education component together with patients. Family members randomized to conventional PR did not attend the sessions with patients, with the exception of sessions used to obtain baseline and post-intervention assessment data.

Exercise Training:

Training frequency was three sessions per week. Sessions lasted 60 min and were delivered by the same physiotherapists in both groups, ensuring a consistent and uniform training among all patients. This component is described elsewhere.23

Psychosocial Support and Education:

Sessions were designed based on a comprehensive literature review on COPD rehabilitation,2426 needs of families living with COPD,7,27,28 and interventions for families living with other chronic diseases.29,30 Education aimed to provide information about COPD, increase the skills of the family to adjust to and manage the disease, and promote adherence to therapy and healthy lifestyles. Psychosocial support intended to help the family to manage the emotional demands of living with COPD, facilitate the communication within the family and with health/social services, and develop a sense of family identity, enhancing its cohesion.

Weekly sessions, lasting approximately 90 min, were conducted by a multidisciplinary team (physiotherapist, gerontologist, psychologist, nurse, and clinician). These professionals assumed the role of facilitators by supporting participants in their doubts, encouraging them to share experiences, normalizing emotions, and assuming an empathic attitude. Several didactic methods were used during the sessions, such as group discussions, home tasks, role playing, and brainstorming. The topics of each of the 12 sessions are presented in Table 1. At each session, a handout was provided to participants. Content presented to both groups was similar; however, in the control group family members did not participate, and, therefore, the content relating to psychosocial and educational topics solely focused on the patient’s perspective.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Topics of the Psychosocial Support and Education Component
Outcome Measures
Descriptive Characteristics:

Sociodemographic information (age, sex, education, marital status, and current occupation) was collected from patients and family members. BMI, activities limitation resulting from dyspnea (assessed with the Modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire31), and lung function,32 assessed with a portable spirometer (MicroLab 3500, CareFusion Corporation), were collected from patients. Data on the kin relationship with the patient and the caregiving duration was obtained from family members. Patients and family members filled in the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales (F-COPES) (the main outcome measure)33 and the Psychosocial Adjustment To Illness Scale-Self Report (PAIS-SR).34

Family Coping:

The F-COPES identifies family problem-solving and behavioral strategies used by families in crisis situations and has been used to assess the impact of interventions in the family.17,35 F-COPES focuses on two levels of interaction: from the individual to the family system (the way in which the family manages crises and problems internally) and from the family to the social environment (the way in which the family manages problems outside its boundaries).17,33,35 F-COPES had good internal consistency, with an overall α of 0.852 in both patients and family members. This instrument is composed of five subscales: acquiring social support (nine items; αpatients [αp] = 0.782 and αfamily members [αf] = 0.820), reframing (eight items; αp = 0.682 and αf = 0.654), seeking spiritual support (four items; αp = 0.803 and αf = 0.850), mobilizing family to acquire and seek help (four items; αp = 0.567 and αf = 0.402), and passive appraisal (four items; αp = 0.430 and αf = 0.596). The acquiring social support subscale measures a family’s ability to acquire support from friends, relatives, neighbors, and extended family. The reframing subscale assesses the family’s ability to redefine stressful events to help them be manageable by the family. The seeking spiritual support subscale examines the family’s ability to acquire spiritual support. The mobilizing family to acquire and accept help subscale measures the family’s ability to seek community resources and accept help from others. The passive appraisal subscale assesses the family’s ability to accept difficult issues, minimizing reactivity. F-COPES describes a variety of coping behaviors, and items are rated using a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (5). The total score ranges from 29 to 145, with higher scores indicating more positive coping and problem-solving strategies.

Psychosocial Adjustment:

The PAIS-SR has been used to assess the impact of rehabilitation programs on psychosocial adjustment to the disease.3638 The PAIS-SR had good internal consistency in patients (αp = 0.920) and family members (αf = 0.912). The scale has seven domains: health-care orientation (eight items; αp = 0.564 and αf = 0.696), vocational environment (six items; αp = 0.658 and αf = 0.571), domestic environment (eight items; αp = 0.832 and αf = 0.590), sexual relationships (six items; αp = 0.865 and αf = 0.829), extended family relationships (five items; αp = 0.635 and αf = 0.844), social environment (six items; αp = 0.832 and αf = 0.678), and psychologic distress (seven items; αp = 0.808 and αf = 0.813). Each item has four statements determining the levels of adjustment (0-3). The participant selects the statement that best describes his/her personal experience. The total score ranges from 0 to 138, and higher scores indicate poorer adjustment.

The following outcome measures were collected only from patients.

Exercise Tolerance:

Exercise tolerance was measured using the 6-min walk test. The measurement properties of this test are well established in COPD.39 Two tests were performed according to standardized guidelines.40

Functional Balance:

The Timed Up-and-Go test was used to assess functional balance.41 Patients were instructed to walk quickly, but as safely as possible. Two tests were performed and the best performance considered.

Muscle Strength:

Knee extensors strength of the dominant limb was assessed using the 10-repetition maximum (10-RM) with ankle weights.42 In patients with COPD, the completion of 1-RM testing may not be safe43; thus, multiple RM, such as 10-RM, were used.

Health-Related Quality of Life:

The St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) is a disease-specific instrument designed to measure quality of life44 and contains three domains: symptoms (eight items), activities (16 items), and impact (26 items). The SGRQ presented high internal consistency, with Cronbach α of 0.769 in the symptoms domain, 0.736 in the activities domain, 0.705 in the impact domain, and of 0.820 in the overall questionnaire. For each domain and for the total questionnaire, score ranges from 0 (no impairment) to 100 (maximum impairment).

Data Analysis

Using F-COPES data from a previous pilot study (not published), two sample size estimations (for patients and family members) with 95% power at a significant level of .05 were performed. These analyses determined that a statistically significant difference in F-COPES total score would be detected with 42 patients (partial η2 = 0.078) and with 30 family members (η2 = 0.110). As PR programs have considerable dropouts, varying between 20% and 40%,45,46 56 family dyads (28 per group) were recruited. These power analyses were performed using the G*Power 3 software (University Düsseldorf).

Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. For each measure, the normality of data was investigated with Shapiro-Wilk tests. Independent t tests for normally distributed data and Mann-Whitney U tests for ordinal/nonnormally distributed data were used to compare baseline measures between groups. χ2 tests were used for categorical data. Two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to establish the significant effects for time, group, and group × time interaction. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Statistical analysis was completed with the estimation of effect sizes for each outcome measure to evaluate the magnitude of treatment effect.47 The effect size was computed via partial η2, as it is the index more commonly reported for two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.48 Partial η2 was interpreted as a small (η2 ≥ 0.01), medium (η2 ≥ 0.06), or large (η2 ≥ 0.14) effect.49 Data analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics version 20.0 (IBM).

Participants’ Characteristics

Figure 1 shows the CONSORT flow diagram of the trial. Of the 69 dyads screened for this study, 13 were excluded. Eight did not meet inclusion criteria, and five declined to participate. Therefore, 56 dyads were allocated to the experimental (n = 28) or control (n = 28) group. Forty-two dyads completed the intervention and posttest assessments and were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences between completers and dropouts regarding any of the sociodemographic, clinical, or psychologic baseline characteristics (P > .05).

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow diagram.Grahic Jump Location

Baseline sociodemographic characteristics of patients and family members of both groups are provided in Table 2. No significant differences between groups were noted in baseline characteristics, with the exception of family members’ marital status (P = .037).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Sample Characteristics at Baseline

Data are presented as mean ± SD or No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. GOLD = Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; mMRC = Modified British Medical Research Council.

Adherence

Patients and family members in the experimental group attended a mean of 11.1 ± 0.9 psychosocial support and education sessions, achieving an overall adherence rate of 92% ± 8.7%. In the control group, patients’ adherence to psychosocial support and education component was 90.8% ± 7.1% (mean of 10.9 ± 0.9 sessions, P = .626). Attendance to exercise training sessions was similar in both groups, with rates of 82.1% ± 15.3% and 83.4% ± 12% (P = .755).

Family Coping

Figure 2 shows the results on family coping in patients and family members of the experimental and control groups. The magnitude of improvement in family coping in patients (P = .048, η2 = 0.091) and family members (P = .004, η2 = 0.226) of the experimental group exceeded the improvement of the control group (Fig 2).

Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  Within-group changes in the F-COPES global score by group in patients and family members. Data are presented as mean change ± SE. Significant differences are identified with * (P < .05). F-COPES = Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales.Grahic Jump Location

After the intervention, patients (P = .017) and family members (P = .047) of both groups reported the use of more strategies of acquiring social support (Table 3). The coping strategies of reframing, seeking spiritual support, and mobilizing to acquire and accept help were more frequent in family members of the experimental group than in those of the control group (P < .05, η2 from 0.149 to 0.255) (Table 3). The strategy mobilizing to acquire and accept help was also more used by patients of the experimental group than by those of the control group (P = .028, η2 = 0.117) (Table 3).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Family Coping in Patients and Family Members of the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. η2 = partial η2; F-COPES = Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales.

Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness

The results of the psychosocial adjustment to illness are presented in Table 4. Patients and family members from both the experimental and control groups experienced improvements in psychosocial adjustment to COPD (P = .003 and P = .001), with no differences between groups (P = .454 and P = .252). Family members of the experimental group had significant changes in sexual relationships (P = .026, η2 = 0.151) and in psychologic distress (P = .033, η2 = 0.123) compared with family members of the control group.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness in Patients and Family Members of the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. PAIS-SR = Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report. See Table 3 legend for expansion of other abbreviation.

a 

Samples of the experimental and control groups were unbalanced in the vocational environment domain, and, thus, results of this domain were not analyzed, nevertheless, they have been accounted for the global score.

Patients’ Outcome Measures

Both the experimental and control groups experienced significant improvements in exercise tolerance, functional balance, knee extensors strength, and health-related quality of life after the intervention (P < .001; η2 from 0.228 to 0.622), with no differences between groups (P > .05) (Table 5).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5 ]  Outcome Measures of Patients in the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. 6MWD = 6-min walking distance; 10-RM = 10 repetition maximum; SGRQ = St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; TUG = Timed Up and Go. See Table 4 legend for expansion of other abbreviation.

To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of family-based PR on patients and family members’ coping strategies. The main findings indicate that integrating the family member in PR contributed to improve the coping strategies of the family to manage the disease, with further improvement in family members’ sexual functioning and psychologic distress. In addition, patients from both groups experienced significant improvements in exercise tolerance, functional balance, knee extensors strength, and health-related quality of life.

Living with COPD has been described as a psychologic distressing experience,50 which involves different coping efforts and affects relational dynamics.10,51 This is explained by the incapacitating nature of the disease characterized by stable periods alternated with periods of exacerbations, which leads to family having to deal with the uncertainty of exacerbation occurrence and with specific demands, such as monitoring health status and adherence to treatments. Although these impacts are greater as the disease progresses, families have expressed the need for more information about the disease and strategies for its management.5,8,1012 However, this has been poorly valued by health professionals and researchers. This study has contributed to the current body of knowledge by showing that a family-based PR is effective in enhancing the coping strategies of all of those living with COPD. Specifically, patients and family members of the family-based PR made greater use of community resources to cope with their problems (external coping).35 Moreover, the improvement in family coping was more pronounced in family members than patients, namely in the strategies of reframing (internal coping) and seeking spiritual support (external coping). The ability to manage stressful events by redefining the event in more helpful terms and to obtain spiritual support are frequently endorsed by families living with chronic diseases and have been associated with lower stress levels.5254 Therefore, including the broader relational context in which COPD is experienced, is beneficial to the family and seems to be a more integrated care model of delivering PR.

Patients and family members from both groups experienced improvements in their psychosocial adjustment to the disease. Improvements in psychosocial morbidity among patients with COPD after PR have been previously reported.55 However, the present study also demonstrated that psychosocial support and education for the family contributed to improved psychologic adjustment to the disease and sexual functioning of the family member. These are important results, since these family members tend to lose intimacy and caring feelings for their partner, which are replaced by feelings of duty (because of marriage vows and societal expectations),8,56 thereby increasing their psychologic distress.11,50

Few studies have developed and evaluated interventions involving family members of patients with COPD,21,57,58 and only one has reported the experience of family members after participating in a multidisciplinary PR program. Positive results on understanding the disease, enhancing the relationship, and their coping strategies were reported up to 2 years after the program.21 However, family members were invited to participate in just one session and considered it somewhat insufficient to their needs. Participating in psychosocial support and education interventions has been found to increase the well-being of the family in other populations, such as cancer,30,59 schizophrenia,60 and psychosis.61 This study is innovative, as it extends these findings to the COPD population.

Although a greater improvement in patients’ functioning of the experimental group compared with those from the control group could be believed to be more compelling, differences between groups were not found. This was not unexpected, as similar exercise training was provided to both groups of patients, and family members from the experimental group were never directly encouraged to be facilitators of patients’ functioning. Future studies should explore whether other levels of family engagement in PR affect patients’ functioning, for example, by encouraging patient’s physical activities.

Some limitations need to be acknowledged. The main findings of this study were based on self-report instruments and may not represent actual changes in patients’ or family members’ behavior. Furthermore, two F-COPES subscales, namely mobilizing family to acquire and seek help (αf = 0.402) and passive appraisal (αp = 0.430), had slight low internal consistency, which may have interfered with the results. Future studies could use other self-reported instruments combined with qualitative methods. This randomized controlled trial was conducted with a small sample of each COPD grade; therefore, it was not possible to determine whether the severity of disease impacted on the outcome. It was also not possible to blind the outcome assessor, which could have influenced the results. Finally, long-term follow-up was not collected, which would strengthen these results. Therefore, it is currently unknown if these effects were sustained. Further research with longer follow-ups and with larger samples is necessary to investigate the short- and long-term effects of family-based PR on each COPD grade.

Family-based PR benefits the family by improving the coping strategies and the psychosocial adjustment to illness. To contribute to integrated care toward managing COPD, PR programs should consider actively involving the family system within the care delivery.

Author contributions: A. M. is the guarantor of the study. A. M. and D. F. contributed to study conception and design and obtaining funding; D. B. contributed as a consultant and provided advice during the conception and design of the project; C. J., J. C., and R. G. contributed to data collection and analysis; and A. M. contributed to drafting the manuscript. All authors critically revised the paper for important intellectual content.

Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

Role of sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design of the study, the collection and analysis of the data, or the preparation of the manuscript.

Other contributions: We thank all institutions, patients, and family members involved for their participation in this research.

10-RM

10-repetition maximum

αf

αfamily member

αp

αpatient

CONSORT

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials

F-COPES

Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales

PAIS-SR

Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report

PR

pulmonary rehabilitation

SGRQ

St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire

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Chiquelho R, Neves S, Mendes A, Relvas AP, Sousa L. proFamilies: a psycho-educational multi-family group intervention for cancer patients and their families. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2011;20(3):337-344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(4):347-365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, et al; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(2):319-338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vaz Serra A. A relevancia clinica do coping nos transtornos emocionais. Psiquiatria na Pratica Medica. 1990;3(4):157-163.
 
Derogatis LR. The psychosocial adjustment to illness scale (PAIS). J Psychosom Res. 1986;30(1):77-91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Devaramane V, Pai NB, Vella SL. The effect of a brief family intervention on primary carer’s functioning and their schizophrenic relatives levels of psychopathology in India. Asian J Psychiatr. 2011;4(3):183-187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bailey A, Starr L, Alderson M, Moreland J. A comparative evaluation of a fibromyalgia rehabilitation program. Arthritis Care Res. 1999;12(5):336-340. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dracup K, Moser DK, Marsden C, Taylor SE, Guzy PM. Effects of a multidimensional cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program on psychosocial function. Am J Cardiol. 1991;68(1):31-34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Trappenburg JC, Troosters T, Spruit MA, Vandebrouck N, Decramer M, Gosselink R. Psychosocial conditions do not affect short-term outcome of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(9):1788-1792. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hill K, Dolmage TE, Woon L, Coutts D, Goldstein R, Brooks D. Comparing peak and submaximal cardiorespiratory responses during field walking tests with incremental cycle ergometry in COPD. Respirology. 2012;17(2):278-284. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories. ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(1):111-117. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed “Up & Go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(2):142-148. [PubMed]
 
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
 
Lotshaw AM, Thompson M, Sadowsky HS, Hart MK, Millard MW. Quality of life and physical performance in land- and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2007;27(4):247-251. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jones PW. St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID. COPD. 2005;2(1):75-79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Garrod R, Marshall J, Barley E, Jones PW. Predictors of success and failure in pulmonary rehabilitation. Eur Respir J. 2006;27(4):788-794. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fischer MJ, Scharloo M, Abbink JJ, et al. Drop-out and attendance in pulmonary rehabilitation: the role of clinical and psychosocial variables. Respir Med. 2009;103(10):1564-1571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kraemer HC, Kupfer DJ. Size of treatment effects and their importance to clinical research and practice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59(11):990-996. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Levine TR, Hullett CR. Eta squared, partial eta squared, and misreporting of effect size in communication research. Hum Commun Res. 2002;28(4):612-625. [CrossRef]
 
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1969.
 
Grant M, Cavanagh A, Yorke J. The impact of caring for those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on carers’ psychological well-being: a narrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49(11):1459-1471. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Seamark DA, Blake SD, Seamark CJ, Halpin DM. Living with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): perceptions of patients and their carers. An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Palliat Med. 2004;18(7):619-625. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Martin SC, Wolters PL, Klaas PA, Perez L, Wood LV. Coping styles among families of children with HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2004;16(3):283-292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ostwald SK, Bernal MP, Cron SG, Godwin KM. Stress experienced by stroke survivors and spousal caregivers during the first year after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2009;16(2):93-104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Redinbaugh EM, Baum A, Tarbell S, Arnold R. End-of-life caregiving: what helps family caregivers cope? J Palliat Med. 2003;6(6):901-909. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Güell R, Resqueti V, Sangenis M, et al. Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on psychosocial morbidity in patients with severe COPD. Chest. 2006;129(4):899-904. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bergs D. “The Hidden Client”—women caring for husbands with COPD: their experience of quality of life. J Clin Nurs. 2002;11(5):613-621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Egan E, Clavarino A, Burridge L, Teuwen M, White E. A randomized control trial of nursing-based case management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lippincotts Case Manag. 2002;7(5):170-179. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horton R, Rocker G, Dale A, Young J, Hernandez P, Sinuff T. Implementing a palliative care trial in advanced COPD: a feasibility assessment (the COPD IMPACT study). J Palliat Med. 2013;16(1):67-73. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bultz BD, Speca M, Brasher PM, Geggie PH, Page SA. A randomized controlled trial of a brief psychoeducational support group for partners of early stage breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2000;9(4):303-313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dixon LB, Lehman AF. Family interventions for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1995;21(4):631-643. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nilsen L, Frich JC, Friis S, Røssberg JI. Patients’ and family members’ experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2014;35(1):58-68. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow diagram.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  Within-group changes in the F-COPES global score by group in patients and family members. Data are presented as mean change ± SE. Significant differences are identified with * (P < .05). F-COPES = Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Topics of the Psychosocial Support and Education Component
Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Sample Characteristics at Baseline

Data are presented as mean ± SD or No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. GOLD = Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; mMRC = Modified British Medical Research Council.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Family Coping in Patients and Family Members of the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. η2 = partial η2; F-COPES = Family Crisis Oriented Personal Scales.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness in Patients and Family Members of the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. PAIS-SR = Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report. See Table 3 legend for expansion of other abbreviation.

a 

Samples of the experimental and control groups were unbalanced in the vocational environment domain, and, thus, results of this domain were not analyzed, nevertheless, they have been accounted for the global score.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5 ]  Outcome Measures of Patients in the Experimental and Control Groups

Data are presented as mean ± SD. 6MWD = 6-min walking distance; 10-RM = 10 repetition maximum; SGRQ = St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; TUG = Timed Up and Go. See Table 4 legend for expansion of other abbreviation.

References

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McCathie HC, Spence SH, Tate RL. Adjustment to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the importance of psychological factors. Eur Respir J. 2002;19(1):47-53. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Stoilkova A, Wouters EF, Spruit MA, Franssen FM, Janssen DJ. The relationship between coping styles and clinical outcomes in patients with COPD entering pulmonary rehabilitation. COPD. 2013;10(3):316-323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zakrisson AB, Theander K, Anderzén-Carlsson A. The experience of a multidisciplinary programme of pulmonary rehabilitation in primary health care from the next of kin’s perspective: a qualitative study. Prim Care Respir J. 2013;22(4):459-465. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, et al. CONSORT 2010 explanation and elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ. 2010;340:c869. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jácome C, Marques A. Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation in subjects with mild COPD. Respir Care. 2014;59(10):1577-1582. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ries AL, Bauldoff GS, Carlin BW, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation: joint ACCP/AACVPR evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2007;131(5_suppl):4S-42S. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bulley C, Donaghy M, Howden S, Salisbury L, Whiteford S, Mackay E. A prospective qualitative exploration of views about attending pulmonary rehabilitation. Physiother Res Int. 2009;14(3):181-192. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E, et al; ATS/ERS Pulmonary Rehabilitation Writing Committee. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(12):1390-1413. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Caress A, Luker K, Chalmers K. Promoting the health of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: patients’ and carers’ views. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19(3-4):564-573. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gardiner C, Gott M, Payne S, et al. Exploring the care needs of patients with advanced COPD: an overview of the literature. Respir Med. 2010;104(2):159-165. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fisher L, Weihs KL. Can addressing family relationships improve outcomes in chronic disease? Report of the National Working Group on Family-Based Interventions in Chronic Disease. J Fam Pract. 2000;49(6):561-566. [PubMed]
 
Chiquelho R, Neves S, Mendes A, Relvas AP, Sousa L. proFamilies: a psycho-educational multi-family group intervention for cancer patients and their families. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2011;20(3):337-344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(4):347-365. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, et al; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2005;26(2):319-338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vaz Serra A. A relevancia clinica do coping nos transtornos emocionais. Psiquiatria na Pratica Medica. 1990;3(4):157-163.
 
Derogatis LR. The psychosocial adjustment to illness scale (PAIS). J Psychosom Res. 1986;30(1):77-91. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Devaramane V, Pai NB, Vella SL. The effect of a brief family intervention on primary carer’s functioning and their schizophrenic relatives levels of psychopathology in India. Asian J Psychiatr. 2011;4(3):183-187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bailey A, Starr L, Alderson M, Moreland J. A comparative evaluation of a fibromyalgia rehabilitation program. Arthritis Care Res. 1999;12(5):336-340. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dracup K, Moser DK, Marsden C, Taylor SE, Guzy PM. Effects of a multidimensional cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program on psychosocial function. Am J Cardiol. 1991;68(1):31-34. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Trappenburg JC, Troosters T, Spruit MA, Vandebrouck N, Decramer M, Gosselink R. Psychosocial conditions do not affect short-term outcome of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(9):1788-1792. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hill K, Dolmage TE, Woon L, Coutts D, Goldstein R, Brooks D. Comparing peak and submaximal cardiorespiratory responses during field walking tests with incremental cycle ergometry in COPD. Respirology. 2012;17(2):278-284. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories. ATS statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166(1):111-117. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed “Up & Go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(2):142-148. [PubMed]
 
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.
 
Lotshaw AM, Thompson M, Sadowsky HS, Hart MK, Millard MW. Quality of life and physical performance in land- and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2007;27(4):247-251. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jones PW. St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: MCID. COPD. 2005;2(1):75-79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Garrod R, Marshall J, Barley E, Jones PW. Predictors of success and failure in pulmonary rehabilitation. Eur Respir J. 2006;27(4):788-794. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fischer MJ, Scharloo M, Abbink JJ, et al. Drop-out and attendance in pulmonary rehabilitation: the role of clinical and psychosocial variables. Respir Med. 2009;103(10):1564-1571. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kraemer HC, Kupfer DJ. Size of treatment effects and their importance to clinical research and practice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;59(11):990-996. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Levine TR, Hullett CR. Eta squared, partial eta squared, and misreporting of effect size in communication research. Hum Commun Res. 2002;28(4):612-625. [CrossRef]
 
Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1969.
 
Grant M, Cavanagh A, Yorke J. The impact of caring for those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on carers’ psychological well-being: a narrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012;49(11):1459-1471. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Seamark DA, Blake SD, Seamark CJ, Halpin DM. Living with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): perceptions of patients and their carers. An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Palliat Med. 2004;18(7):619-625. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Martin SC, Wolters PL, Klaas PA, Perez L, Wood LV. Coping styles among families of children with HIV infection. AIDS Care. 2004;16(3):283-292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ostwald SK, Bernal MP, Cron SG, Godwin KM. Stress experienced by stroke survivors and spousal caregivers during the first year after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2009;16(2):93-104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Redinbaugh EM, Baum A, Tarbell S, Arnold R. End-of-life caregiving: what helps family caregivers cope? J Palliat Med. 2003;6(6):901-909. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Güell R, Resqueti V, Sangenis M, et al. Impact of pulmonary rehabilitation on psychosocial morbidity in patients with severe COPD. Chest. 2006;129(4):899-904. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bergs D. “The Hidden Client”—women caring for husbands with COPD: their experience of quality of life. J Clin Nurs. 2002;11(5):613-621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Egan E, Clavarino A, Burridge L, Teuwen M, White E. A randomized control trial of nursing-based case management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lippincotts Case Manag. 2002;7(5):170-179. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horton R, Rocker G, Dale A, Young J, Hernandez P, Sinuff T. Implementing a palliative care trial in advanced COPD: a feasibility assessment (the COPD IMPACT study). J Palliat Med. 2013;16(1):67-73. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bultz BD, Speca M, Brasher PM, Geggie PH, Page SA. A randomized controlled trial of a brief psychoeducational support group for partners of early stage breast cancer patients. Psychooncology. 2000;9(4):303-313. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dixon LB, Lehman AF. Family interventions for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull. 1995;21(4):631-643. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nilsen L, Frich JC, Friis S, Røssberg JI. Patients’ and family members’ experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2014;35(1):58-68. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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