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Original Research: Diffuse Lung Disease |

CT Scan Findings of Probable Usual Interstitial Pneumonitis Have a High Predictive Value for Histologic Usual Interstitial PneumonitisUsual Interstitial Pneumonitis on Chest CT Scan FREE TO VIEW

Jonathan H. Chung, MD; Ashish Chawla, MD; Anna L. Peljto, PhD; Carlyne D. Cool, MD; Steve D. Groshong, MD; Janet L. Talbert, MS; David F. McKean, BS; Kevin K. Brown, MD, FCCP; Tasha E. Fingerlin, PhD; Marvin I. Schwarz, MD, FCCP; David A. Schwartz, MD; David A. Lynch, MBBS
Author and Funding Information

From the Department of Radiology (Drs Chung, Chawla, and Lynch) and Department of Medicine (Drs Cool, Groshong, Brown, and D. A. Schwartz and Ms Talbert), National Jewish Health, Denver; and the Department of Medicine (Drs Peljto, Cool, M. I. Schwarz, and D. A. Schwartz and Mr McKean), Department of Epidemiology (Dr Fingerlin), and Department of Immunology (Dr D. A. Schwartz), University of Colorado, Aurora, CO.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Jonathan H. Chung, MD, Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206; e-mail: ChungJ@NJHealth.org


This article was presented at the Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting, December 4, 2013, Chicago, IL.

FUNDING/SUPPORT: The research presented here was supported by the following grants: National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 HL097163 (Dr D. A. Schwartz), VA-Merit 1I01BX001534 (Dr D. A. Schwartz), NIH P01 HL092870 (Dr D. A. Schwartz), and NIH R01 HL095393 (Dr D. A. Schwartz).

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2015;147(2):450-459. doi:10.1378/chest.14-0976
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BACKGROUND:  The current usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP)/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis CT scan classification system excludes probable UIP as a diagnostic category. We sought to determine the predictive effect of probable UIP on CT scan on histology and the effect of the promoter polymorphism in MUC5B (rs35705950) on histologic and CT scan UIP diagnosis.

METHODS:  The cohort included 201 subjects with pulmonary fibrosis who had lung tissue samples obtained within 1 year of chest CT scan. UIP diagnosis on CT scan was categorized as inconsistent with, indeterminate, probable, or definite UIP by two to three pulmonary radiologists. Tissue slides were scored by two expert pulmonary pathologists. All subjects with available DNA (N = 200) were genotyped for rs35705950.

RESULTS:  The proportion of CT scan diagnoses were as follows: inconsistent with (69 of 201, 34.3%), indeterminate (72 of 201, 35.8%), probable (34 of 201, 16.9%), and definite (26 of 201, 12.9%) UIP. Subjects with probable UIP on CT scan were more likely to have histologic probable/definite UIP than subjects with indeterminate UIP on CT scan (82.4% [28 of 34] vs 54.2% [39 of 72]; P = .01). CT scan and microscopic honeycombing were not associated with each other (P = .76). The minor (T) allele of the MUC5B polymorphism was associated with concordant CT scan and histologic UIP diagnosis (P = .03).

CONCLUSIONS:  Probable UIP on CT scan is associated with a higher rate of histologic UIP than indeterminate UIP on CT scan suggesting that they are distinct groups and should not be combined into a single CT scan category as currently recommended by guidelines. CT scan and microscopic honeycombing may be dissimilar entities. The T allele at rs35705950 predicts a UIP diagnosis by both chest CT scan and histology.

Figures in this Article

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common form of pulmonary fibrosis, and usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) is its histologic and imaging correlate. Studies have shown that genetic risk factors are associated with the development of pulmonary fibrosis.1 Pulmonary fibrosis occurs with mutations in the surfactant protein C gene, surfactant protein A2 gene, and telomerase genes.24 Seibold et al5 showed that the minor allele (Thymidine [T]) of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs35705950, within the promoter region of an airway mucin gene (MUC5B), is associated with both familial and sporadic forms of IPF,5 and this has been validated in five independent study populations.610 However, this variant was not associated with sarcoidosis or the pulmonary fibrosis that occurs in scleroderma.6,11,12

Prior studies examined the correlation between CT scan and histologic findings in the setting of pulmonary fibrosis.1318 These suggest that though a highly confident diagnosis of UIP on CT scan is strongly predictive of IPF, the overall sensitivity of CT scan for a UIP diagnosis is approximately 50%.1922 For this reason, current guidelines suggest that subjects without a confident CT scan diagnosis of UIP, those with a CT scan appearance of possible UIP or inconsistent with UIP, should be considered for surgical lung biopsy.23 There is likely a subpopulation of subjects without CT scan honeycombing but with otherwise typical features of UIP (termed probable UIP in this study) that are highly likely to have UIP.24 The probable UIP CT scan group (as defined in this study) would be considered a subset of possible UIP on CT scan using current guidelines.23 The significance of probable UIP CT scan in establishing a UIP diagnosis is unknown. Moreover, there are no studies which have evaluated the relationship between histologic and radiologic diagnoses of UIP relative to the rs35705950 SNP genotype.

The purpose of this study was to determine the positive predictive value of probable UIP on CT scan for histologic UIP. A secondary goal of the study was to determine whether the MUC5B promoter site SNP (rs35705950) is associated with concordant radiologic and histologic diagnosis of UIP.

We hypothesized that the CT scan finding of probable UIP would have a high predictive value for histologic UIP. Given the association between the minor allele (T) at the MUC5B promoter site polymorphism and IPF, we also hypothesized that the imaging and histologic diagnosis in those with the minor allele (T) would be more often UIP compared with those with the major allele (Guanine [G]).

This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant study was approved by our institutional review board (NJH 1441A). This study was conducted in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. Consent was obtained from all subjects.

Study Population

Clinical, imaging, histologic, and genetic data were collected from subjects with known or suspected pulmonary fibrosis. Subjects were not limited to those with UIP on histology and imaging or a clinical diagnosis of IPF. These subjects were taken from multiple studies and centers: National Jewish Health; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Lung Tissue Research Consortium; Vanderbilt University; University of California San Francisco; the InterMune-supported IPF γ-interferon l and pirfenidone trials; and families with familial interstitial pneumonia (as defined by two or greater occurrences of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in at least third-degree relatives) between 1999 and 2010. More than 1,700 chest CT scans were available for scoring. Lung tissue samples within 1 year of the CT scan were available for pathologic evaluation in 201 subjects. The tissues were obtained from surgical biopsy, explanted lung, or autopsy (subjects with only transbronchial lung biopsies were excluded).

CT Scan Evaluation

The chest CT scans were scored by two pulmonary radiologists (J. H. C. [6-years experience] and A. C. [8-years experience]). All available chest CT scan images were evaluated. All images of chest CT scans available for a given subject were evaluated by radiologists before scoring. Any discrepancies were resolved by a third pulmonary radiologist (D. A. L.) with approximately 26 years of experience in pulmonary imaging. Pulmonary fibrosis was defined as reticular abnormality and/or subpleural irregularity or traction bronchiectasis with or without honeycombing. Recorded imaging findings included the presence and extent of reticulation (as a marker for pulmonary fibrosis), honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity as defined by Fleischner glossary of terms25; predominant zonal distribution (upper, mid, lower, diffuse); and predominant axial distribution (peribronchovascular, peripheral, diffuse). The presence of pulmonary fibrosis, honeycombing, and ground-glass opacity was scored on a three-point scale based on level of confidence (none, probable, or definite). The percentage of lung involvement was scored to the nearest 10%.

Readers were allowed to select any combination of diagnoses with level of confidence, including usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis, organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asbestosis, silicosis, sarcoidosis, obliterative bronchiolitis, and cellular bronchiolitis. In regard to UIP diagnosis, the level of radiologist confidence was separated into four categories: inconsistent with UIP, indeterminate UIP, probable UIP, or definite UIP based on specific criteria (Figs 14). Definite UIP was defined as peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis characterized by reticulation, honeycombing, and absence of findings to suggest another specific diagnosis. Probable UIP was defined as peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis with reticulation, little or no honeycombing, and absence of features to suggest another specific diagnosis. Inconsistent with UIP was defined according to the current guidelines.23 Indeterminate UIP was defined as pulmonary fibrosis with imaging findings not sufficiently characteristic to reach a definite, probable, or inconsistent with UIP level. These were cases in which the CT scan pattern was intermediate between that of probable UIP and inconsistent with UIP (eg, mild ground-glass opacity slightly more prominent than reticulation, mild-to-moderate degree of air-trapping) or the axial or zonal distribution was diffuse (which is not addressed in current guidelines). Most indeterminate UIP and all probable UIP CT scan classifications used in the current study would be categorized as possible UIP on CT scan according to current guidelines.23

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show upper and peripheral predominant pulmonary fibrosis scored as inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) based on upper lung preponderance of disease. Incidental note is made of a tracheal bronchus (arrow).Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan demonstrates diffuse zonal distribution of mild pulmonary fibrosis as well as mild ground-glass opacity. Ground-glass opacity in most areas is associated with reticulation except for some sparse areas in the upper lung zones (A, B). Due to diffuse zonal distribution of pulmonary fibrosis, this CT scan was scored as indeterminate UIP. Presence of ground-glass opacity slightly above expected given degree of reticulation may have also led to an indeterminate UIP score. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis without subpleural honeycombing. This CT scan was scored as probable UIP. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis with subpleural honeycombing consistent with definite UIP. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location
Histologic Evaluation

Tissue samples were scored by two thoracic pathologists (S. D. G. [10-years experience] and C. D. C. [17-years experience]) with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Scoring of the histologic tissue slides was similar to that of CT scan scoring. Pathologic features were scored as either present, rare, or absent, including temporal heterogeneity, microscopic honeycombing (honeycombing identified on histology), and fibroblastic foci. Each feature was scored only if the pathologists determined that the specimen was of adequate size and resolution to be scored with reasonable confidence, and was otherwise treated as missing data. Diagnoses from pathologic findings were based on recently released guidelines with level of confidence.26 UIP diagnosis was scored as not considered, possible (< 50% likelihood), probable (50%-89% likelihood), or definite (≥ 90% likelihood). A confident UIP diagnosis required temporal and special heterogeneity with microscopic architectural distortion, usually inclusive of microscopic honeycombing and scar. In addition to UIP diagnosis, any of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias or secondary causes of pulmonary fibrosis could be selected as diagnostic choices. Level of confidence in diagnosis was mandatory, mirroring the methodology on CT scan.

Genotyping Assay

All subjects with available DNA were genotyped for the MUC5B promoter polymorphism (rs35705950). Genotypes of the MUC5B SNP were determined using TaqMan genotyping (Life Technologies [Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc]) as previously reported.5

Statistical Analysis

χ2 tests were used to assess associations between groups. A two-tailed Fisher exact test was used in instances where there were expected cell counts less than five, and Monte-Carlo estimates were used to calculate P values for tables larger than two × two. A weighted κ coefficient was used to test for agreement between CT scan and histologic evaluation for assessing honeycombing and diagnosing UIP.2729 The association between the concordance of UIP diagnoses on CT scan and histology relative to the rs35705950 genotype was also assessed using a Cochran-Armitage trend test. P value < .05 was considered statistically significant for all tests. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc).

The cohort demographics are summarized in Table 1. Average age was 62.9 years ± 10.2 years. Men comprised 62% of the cohort (125 of 201). Approximately 61% of subjects were former or current smokers. The distribution of genotype at the genetic locus rs35705950 did not deviate significantly from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = .08): GG 98 (49%), GT 91 (46%), and TT 11 (6%).5

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Demographic and Clinical Characteristics (N = 201)

Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Not all variables available for all subjects. ILD = interstitial lung disease; IP = interstitial pneumonitis; IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; UIP = usual interstitial pneumonitis.

There was fair to moderate agreement between readers for CT scan findings (Table 2). The CT scan findings as well as axial and zonal distribution of pulmonary fibrosis are summarized in Table 3. As expected, given the defined parameters for CT scan UIP diagnosis, 100% of the group with definite UIP had honeycombing (25 of 25), while the inconsistent with UIP group had a far lower proportion of honeycombing (12.9%, nine of 70). The opposite was found for ground-glass opacity. Substantially more ground-glass opacity was seen in inconsistent with UIP group (95.4%, 42 of 44) than those with definite UIP (0.0%, zero of seven) on CT scan. As the confidence for UIP diagnosis increased on CT scan, there was a higher proportion of subjects with a typical distribution for UIP on CT scan (lower lung zone and subpleural predominant pulmonary fibrosis). In regard to histologic results, there was no statistical difference in the proportion of microscopic honeycombing, fibroblastic foci, or temporal heterogeneity across CT scan categories of UIP, though the numbers were small (P = .09, .93, and .27, respectively).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Agreement Between Readers for CT Scan Findings

See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

a 

Linear-weighted κ.

b 

Simple κ.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Characteristics by UIP Diagnosis on CT Scan (N = 201)

Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Not all variables available for all subjects. PBV = peribronchovascular. See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

Radiology-Pathology Correlation for Honeycombing and UIP Diagnosis

There was no significant association between CT scan honeycombing and microscopic honeycombing (Fisher exact P = .76) (Table 4). In those with CT scan honeycombing, microscopic honeycombing was found in 86.0% of subjects (49 of 57). If honeycombing was not present on CT scan, microscopic honeycombing was still present in 86.4% of subjects (51 of 59). Weighted κ score was −0.005, 95% CI = (−0.13, 0.12), indicating poor agreement between CT scan and histologic honeycombing.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Classification of Honeycombing, Observed (and Expected) Counts

Weighted κ = −0.005; 95% CI = (−0.13, 0.12); P = .94; Fisher exact P = .76.

In regard to concordance of CT scan and histologic UIP scoring (Table 5), the proportions of histologic UIP diagnoses in those with probable vs definite UIP on CT scan (P = .20) and in those with inconsistent with vs indeterminate UIP on CT scan (P = .93) were not statistically different. However, the proportions of UIP diagnoses on histology in probable UIP vs indeterminate UIP on chest CT scan were statistically different (P = .01). In those with probable UIP on CT scan, 82.4% of subjects (28 of 34) had a probable or definite UIP diagnosis on histology compared with 54.2% of subjects (39 of 72) with indeterminate UIP on CT scan.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Classification of UIP, Observed (and Expected) Counts

Weighted κ = 0.14; 95% CI = (0.05, 0.22); P = .0018; Fisher exact test P = .03. See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

UIP Diagnosis Relative to the rs35705950 SNP

There was a significantly higher percentage of subjects with at least one copy of the T allele (P = .008) among those with a UIP diagnosis on both histology and on CT scan (Table 6). Carriage of the T allele was most often associated with a confident UIP diagnosis on CT scan (31 of 51, 61%). The T allele was least often associated with concordant CT scan inconsistent with UIP and histologic not UIP diagnosis (25%).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 6 ]  rs35705950 Genotype Relative to Radiologic and Histologic Classification of UIP

See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

a 

Concordant UIP: UIP on CT scan and UIP on histology.

b 

Discordant UIP: (1) UIP on CT scan and not UIP on histology, or (2) inconsistent with UIP on CT scan and UIP on histology.

c 

Concordant not UIP: inconsistent with UIP on CT scan and not UIP on histology.

Our study showed that a histologic UIP diagnosis was more often present in subjects with probable UIP on CT scan than indeterminate UIP on CT scan. Our data also show that there is no agreement or association between CT scan honeycombing and microscopic honeycombing, implying that they may represent different structures in the fibrotic lung. Finally, our study also showed that the T allele is associated with a concordant UIP diagnosis on chest CT scan and histology.

Prior studies have indicated a higher likelihood of a histologic UIP diagnosis as the confidence of UIP diagnosis on chest CT scan increases.19,22,3032 Currently, it is suggested that the specificity of a definite CT scan UIP diagnosis is so high that in most cases, lung biopsy is obviated; this is supported by recent guidelines.23 However, this study indicates that the current guidelines need modification. Under the current guidelines, the indeterminate UIP and probable UIP groups on chest CT scan (as defined in the current study) should be combined into the possible UIP group on chest CT scan. The statistical difference between the histologic scoring of UIP diagnoses in indeterminate CT scan UIP and probable CT scan UIP suggests that these two CT scan groups are different. This suggests that perhaps four levels of UIP diagnosis on chest CT scan are necessary: inconsistent with UIP, indeterminate UIP, probable UIP, and definite UIP. Though we cannot completely rule out a difference in the histologic diagnoses between probable UIP on chest CT scan compared with that of definite UIP on chest CT scan with this sample size, there was no statistical difference between these two groups. In fact, the percentage of cases of probable UIP on CT scan in which there was a histologic diagnosis of UIP was higher than that of definite UIP on CT scan. Based on this data, it would be tempting to combine the probable UIP with definite UIP groups on chest CT scan for diagnostic purposes. However, given that the main differentiator between these two groups is presence of honeycombing, the two groups may have different prognoses and should be differentiated on imaging unless future studies suggest the contrary.

Honeycombing, as described in the Fleischner Society glossary of terms, is defined as “clustered cystic air spaces, typically of comparable diameters on the order of 3-10 mm.”25 In the setting of pulmonary fibrosis, honeycombing on chest CT scan is important for both diagnostic and prognostic reasons. Honeycombing, in addition to upper lobe subpleural linear opacities, is the most specific finding of UIP on CT scan, and occurs in up to 90% of UIP cases.30,33 The extent of honeycombing and of pulmonary fibrosis on CT scan has adverse prognostic ramifications.3337 Though we hoped to see a relationship between CT scan honeycombing and microscopic honeycombing, there was no such association in our study suggesting that honeycombing on CT scan and histology are dissimilar. It has been shown that CT scan honeycombing is associated with a poor prognosis but this is not the case for microscopic honeycombing; microscopic honeycombing also is not necessarily specific for a UIP diagnosis as opposed to CT scan honeycombing which is highly specific for UIP.38 However, our result should be interpreted cautiously. The resolution of CT scan does not permit recognition of microscopic honeycombing. Additionally, macroscopic CT scan honeycombing may be avoided during surgical lung biopsy.

Prior studies have shown that the minor allele (T) at the MUC5B promoter site is associated with IPF and familial pulmonary fibrosis but not with pulmonary fibrosis in the setting of scleroderma (most often nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis) or sarcoidosis.5,6,1012 In this study, we showed the association of the T allele with concordant UIP diagnosis on CT scan and histology. Seibold et al5 presented three hypotheses on the mechanism accounting for the link between the T allele and IPF. First, the T allele can cause excess production of MUC5B, which could conceivably decrease mucosal host defenses. Over time, the cumulative insults to the lung could lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alternatively, excess MUC5B in the small airways could impair alveolar repair either by altering the complex relationship between the type 2 alveolar epithelial cells and the lung matrix or by altering the effectiveness of surfactant. Lastly, the rs35705950 SNP is a putative promoter site for MUC5B and may interfere with transcription-factor binding sites. This could lead to ectopic production of MUC5B in isolated bronchoalveolar unit, which would help explain why IPF is a spatially heterogeneous process. Our study was not designed to test any of the proposed underlying mechanisms; however, our results do further solidify the association between UIP/IPF and the rs35705950 SNP.

Limitations of this study include the temporal separation of imaging and lung biopsy (up to 1 year). In addition, there was undoubtedly a selection bias given that the majority of the subjects did not have histologic samples for scoring. Most cases of definite UIP on CT scan are no longer biopsied given the high specificity for a UIP/IPF diagnosis with this imaging pattern. Therefore, the subjects in this study likely had more complex or uncertain imaging patterns compared with the full cohort. This could explain the relatively low prevalence of histologic UIP in those with definite UIP on CT scan. Those subjects with a definite CT scan UIP pattern with typical clinical presentation and patient demographics for IPF were likely not biopsied; therefore, subjects in this study with a histologic diagnosis may have presented with clinical manifestations suggestive of an underlying cause for pulmonary fibrosis, prompting biopsy. Furthermore, many of these subjects came from specialized medical centers and were more likely to have complex or atypical disease presentations. In any radiology-pathology study, there is risk of sampling error given that the histologic specimens comprise a very small percentage of total lung volume.

The significant difference between the histology of indeterminate UIP on chest CT scan and probable UIP on chest CT scan suggests that current guidelines (which combine these two groups into the possible UIP category) should separate these groups. Those with probable UIP on CT scan very often have UIP on histology. CT scan and histologic honeycombing are not associated, which implies that they may not be identical entities, though more study is necessary in this regard. The T allele of the rs35705950 SNP is associated with a higher proportion of concordant UIP diagnoses on chest CT scan and histology compared with the G allele.

Author contributions: J. H. C. had full access to the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. J. H. C., A. L. P., and D. A. L. contributed to study design; J. L. T. contributed by coordinating the clinical evaluations; J. H. C., A. C., C. D. C., and S. D. G. contributed to radiologic and pathologic phenotyping of study subjects; D. F. M. contributed by managing the database; A. L. P. and T. E. F. contributed to data analysis; A. L. P. contributed by creating tables; J. H. C., A. L. P., K. K. B., M. I. S., D. A. S., and D. A. L. contributed by providing advice on design and interpretation of results; J. H. C., A. L. P., and D. A. L. contributed by performing literature review; and J. H. C., A. L. P., K. K. B., M. I. S., D. A. S., and D. A. L. contributed to the writing of the manuscript.

Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts: Dr D. A. Schwartz has grant funding from the National Institutes of Health and US Department of Veterans Affairs. He holds a number of patents related to pulmonary fibrosis. Additionally, he has provided expert testimony for mesothelioma legal cases. Dr Lynch is a consultant to PAREXEL International Corporation; Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH; Genentech, Inc; Gilead; MedImmune, LLC; InterMune; Veracyte, Inc; and Pfizer Inc. He has received research support from Centocor, Inc (Janssen Biotech, Inc); Siemens AG; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Drs Chung, Chawla, Peljto, Cool, Groshong, Brown, Fingerlin, and Schwarz; Ms Talbert; and Mr McKean have reported that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

Role of sponsors: The sponsor had no role in the design of the study, the collection and analysis of the data, or the preparation of the manuscript.

IPF

idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

SNP

single nucleotide polymorphism

UIP

usual interstitial pneumonitis

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Gruden JF, Panse PM, Leslie KO, Tazelaar HD, Colby TV. UIP diagnosed at surgical lung biopsy, 2000-2009: HRCT patterns and proposed classification system. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(5):W458-W467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hansell DM, Bankier AA, MacMahon H, McLoud TC, Müller NL, Remy J. Fleischner Society: glossary of terms for thoracic imaging. Radiology. 2008;246(3):697-722. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society; European Respiratory Society. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. This joint statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) was adopted by the ATS board of directors, June 2001 and by the ERS Executive Committee, June 2001. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165(2):277-304. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Cicchetti DV, Allison T. A new procedure for assessing reliability of scoring EEG sleep recordings. Am J EEG Technol. 1971;11:101-109.
 
Fleiss JL, Cohen J, Everitt BS. Large sample standard errors of kappa and weighted kappa. Psychol Bull. 1969;72:323-327. [CrossRef]
 
Fleiss JL, Levin B, Paik MC. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions.3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
 
Hunninghake GW, Lynch DA, Galvin JR, et al. Radiologic findings are strongly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia. Chest. 2003;124(4):1215-1223. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsubamoto M, Müller NL, Johkoh T, et al. Pathologic subgroups of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: differential diagnosis from other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias on high-resolution computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29(6):793-800. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johkoh T, Müller NL, Cartier Y, et al. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT in 129 patients. Radiology. 1999;211(2):555-560. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lynch DA, Godwin JD, Safrin S, et al; Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Study Group. High-resolution computed tomography in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: diagnosis and prognosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(4):488-493. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gay SE, Kazerooni EA, Toews GB, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: predicting response to therapy and survival. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(4 pt 1):1063-1072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagao T, Nagai S, Hiramoto Y, et al. Serial evaluation of high-resolution computed tomography findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in usual interstitial pneumonia. Respiration. 2002;69(5):413-419. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Sumikawa H, Johkoh T, Colby TV, et al. Computed tomography findings in pathological usual interstitial pneumonia: relationship to survival. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(4):433-439. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shin KM, Lee KS, Chung MP, et al. Prognostic determinants among clinical, thin-section CT, and histopathologic findings for fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: tertiary hospital study. Radiology. 2008;249(1):328-337. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Churg AM. Lung biopsy, lung resection, and autopsy lung specimens.. In:Churg AM, Myers JL, Tazelaar HD, Wright JL., eds. Thurlbech’s Pathology of the Lung. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc; 2005:95-108.
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show upper and peripheral predominant pulmonary fibrosis scored as inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) based on upper lung preponderance of disease. Incidental note is made of a tracheal bronchus (arrow).Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan demonstrates diffuse zonal distribution of mild pulmonary fibrosis as well as mild ground-glass opacity. Ground-glass opacity in most areas is associated with reticulation except for some sparse areas in the upper lung zones (A, B). Due to diffuse zonal distribution of pulmonary fibrosis, this CT scan was scored as indeterminate UIP. Presence of ground-glass opacity slightly above expected given degree of reticulation may have also led to an indeterminate UIP score. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis without subpleural honeycombing. This CT scan was scored as probable UIP. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4 –  A-D, Multiple axial images from noncontrast chest CT scan show peripheral and basilar predominant pulmonary fibrosis with subpleural honeycombing consistent with definite UIP. See Figure 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Demographic and Clinical Characteristics (N = 201)

Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Not all variables available for all subjects. ILD = interstitial lung disease; IP = interstitial pneumonitis; IPF = idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; UIP = usual interstitial pneumonitis.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Agreement Between Readers for CT Scan Findings

See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

a 

Linear-weighted κ.

b 

Simple κ.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Characteristics by UIP Diagnosis on CT Scan (N = 201)

Data are given as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated. Not all variables available for all subjects. PBV = peribronchovascular. See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Classification of Honeycombing, Observed (and Expected) Counts

Weighted κ = −0.005; 95% CI = (−0.13, 0.12); P = .94; Fisher exact P = .76.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5 ]  Radiologic and Histologic Classification of UIP, Observed (and Expected) Counts

Weighted κ = 0.14; 95% CI = (0.05, 0.22); P = .0018; Fisher exact test P = .03. See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 6 ]  rs35705950 Genotype Relative to Radiologic and Histologic Classification of UIP

See Table 1 legend for expansion of abbreviation.

a 

Concordant UIP: UIP on CT scan and UIP on histology.

b 

Discordant UIP: (1) UIP on CT scan and not UIP on histology, or (2) inconsistent with UIP on CT scan and UIP on histology.

c 

Concordant not UIP: inconsistent with UIP on CT scan and not UIP on histology.

References

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Stock CJ, Sato H, Fonseca C, et al. Mucin 5B promoter polymorphism is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but not with development of lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis or sarcoidosis. Thorax. 2013;68(5):436-441. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johkoh T, Müller NL, Colby TV, et al. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: correlation between thin-section CT findings and pathologic subgroups in 55 patients. Radiology. 2002;225(1):199-204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Schettino IA, Ab’Saber AM, Vollmer R, et al. Accuracy of high resolution CT in assessing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis histology by objective morphometric index. Pathol Res Pract. 2002;198(5):347-354. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shimizu K, Matsumoto T, Miura G, et al. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome with diffuse pulmonary fibrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1998;22(2):249-251. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kazerooni EA, Martinez FJ, Flint A, et al. Thin-section CT obtained at 10-mm increments versus limited three-level thin-section CT for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: correlation with pathologic scoring. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(4):977-983. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nishimura K, Kitaichi M, Izumi T, Nagai S, Kanaoka M, Itoh H. Usual interstitial pneumonia: histologic correlation with high-resolution CT. Radiology. 1992;182(2):337-342. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Sumikawa H, Johkoh T, Fujimoto K, et al. Usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: correlation between CT findings at the site of biopsy with pathological diagnoses. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81(10):2919-2924. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Flaherty KR, Thwaite EL, Kazerooni EA, et al. Radiological versus histological diagnosis in UIP and NSIP: survival implications. Thorax. 2003;58(2):143-148. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Elliot TL, Lynch DA, Newell JD Jr, et al. High-resolution computed tomography features of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29(3):339-345. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Silva CI, Müller NL, Hansell DM, Lee KS, Nicholson AG, Wells AU. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: changes in pattern and distribution of disease over time. Radiology. 2008;247(1):251-259. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Silva CI, Müller NL, Lynch DA, et al. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: differentiation from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia by using thin-section CT. Radiology. 2008;246(1):288-297. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Raghu G, Collard HR, Egan JJ, et al; ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Committee on Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(6):788-824. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gruden JF, Panse PM, Leslie KO, Tazelaar HD, Colby TV. UIP diagnosed at surgical lung biopsy, 2000-2009: HRCT patterns and proposed classification system. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200(5):W458-W467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hansell DM, Bankier AA, MacMahon H, McLoud TC, Müller NL, Remy J. Fleischner Society: glossary of terms for thoracic imaging. Radiology. 2008;246(3):697-722. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society; European Respiratory Society. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society International Multidisciplinary Consensus Classification of the Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias. This joint statement of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) was adopted by the ATS board of directors, June 2001 and by the ERS Executive Committee, June 2001. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165(2):277-304. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Cicchetti DV, Allison T. A new procedure for assessing reliability of scoring EEG sleep recordings. Am J EEG Technol. 1971;11:101-109.
 
Fleiss JL, Cohen J, Everitt BS. Large sample standard errors of kappa and weighted kappa. Psychol Bull. 1969;72:323-327. [CrossRef]
 
Fleiss JL, Levin B, Paik MC. Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions.3rd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 2003.
 
Hunninghake GW, Lynch DA, Galvin JR, et al. Radiologic findings are strongly associated with a pathologic diagnosis of usual interstitial pneumonia. Chest. 2003;124(4):1215-1223. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsubamoto M, Müller NL, Johkoh T, et al. Pathologic subgroups of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: differential diagnosis from other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias on high-resolution computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29(6):793-800. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johkoh T, Müller NL, Cartier Y, et al. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: diagnostic accuracy of thin-section CT in 129 patients. Radiology. 1999;211(2):555-560. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lynch DA, Godwin JD, Safrin S, et al; Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Study Group. High-resolution computed tomography in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: diagnosis and prognosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(4):488-493. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gay SE, Kazerooni EA, Toews GB, et al. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: predicting response to therapy and survival. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;157(4 pt 1):1063-1072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagao T, Nagai S, Hiramoto Y, et al. Serial evaluation of high-resolution computed tomography findings in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in usual interstitial pneumonia. Respiration. 2002;69(5):413-419. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Sumikawa H, Johkoh T, Colby TV, et al. Computed tomography findings in pathological usual interstitial pneumonia: relationship to survival. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177(4):433-439. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shin KM, Lee KS, Chung MP, et al. Prognostic determinants among clinical, thin-section CT, and histopathologic findings for fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: tertiary hospital study. Radiology. 2008;249(1):328-337. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Churg AM. Lung biopsy, lung resection, and autopsy lung specimens.. In:Churg AM, Myers JL, Tazelaar HD, Wright JL., eds. Thurlbech’s Pathology of the Lung. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc; 2005:95-108.
 
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