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Original Research: Diffuse Lung Disease |

The Clinical Course of Diffuse Idiopathic Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cell HyperplasiaCourse of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia FREE TO VIEW

Laurie L. Carr, MD; Jonathan H. Chung, MD; Rosane Duarte Achcar, MD; Zoran Lesic, MD; Ji Y. Rho, MD; Kunihiro Yagihashi, MD; Robert M. Tate, MD; Jeffrey J. Swigris, DO; Jeffrey A. Kern, MD
Author and Funding Information

From the Division of Oncology (Drs Carr and Kern), Division of Radiology (Drs Chung and Yagihashi), Division of Pathology (Dr Duarte Achcar), and Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine (Drs Tate and Swigris), Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO; Department of Medicine (Dr Lesic), St. Anthony Hospital, Lakewood, CO; Division of Radiology (Dr Rho), CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul, Korea; and Department of Radiology (Dr Yagihashi), St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Laurie L. Carr, MD, Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, Denver, CO 80206; e-mail: carrl@njhealth.org


FUNDING/SUPPORT: The authors have reported to CHEST that no funding was received for this study.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2015;147(2):415-422. doi:10.1378/chest.14-0711
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BACKGROUND:  Current understanding of the clinical course of diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is poor and based predominantly on small case series. In our clinical experience, we have found that the diagnosis of DIPNECH is frequently delayed because respiratory symptoms are ascribed to other lung conditions. The objectives of this study were to collect and analyze longitudinal clinical data on pulmonary physiology, chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) imaging, and therapies to better delineate the course of disease.

METHODS:  We established a cohort of patients (N = 30) with DIPNECH seen at our institution. We used descriptive statistics to summarize cohort characteristics and longitudinal analytic techniques to model FEV1 % predicted (FEV1%) over time.

RESULTS:  All subjects were women who presented with long-standing cough and dyspnea. The majority had an FEV1% < 50% at the time of diagnosis. Forty percent were given a diagnosis of asthma as the cause for physiologic obstruction. The mean FEV1% for the entire cohort showed no statistically significant decline over time, but 26% of the subjects experienced a 10% decline in FEV1 within 2 years. Among the pathology samples available for review, 28% (five of 18) had typical carcinoids and 44% had associated constrictive bronchiolitis. We propose clinical diagnostic criteria for DIPNECH that incorporate demographic, pulmonary physiology, HRCT imaging, and transbronchial and surgical lung biopsy data.

CONCLUSIONS:  DIPNECH is a female-predominant lung disease manifested by dyspnea and cough, physiologic obstruction, and nodules on HRCT imaging. Additional research is needed to understand the natural history of this disease and validate the proposed diagnostic criteria.

Figures in this Article

Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “a generalized proliferation of scattered single cells, small nodules (neuroendocrine bodies), or linear proliferations of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) that may be confined to the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium.”1 Neuroendocrine hyperplasia has been known for years to occur as a secondary phenomenon in chronic lung disease, but its recognition as a primary pathologic process, independent of other lung abnormalities, has occurred only within the past couple decades.2 In patients with DIPNECH, peribronchiolar fibrosis, believed to be driven by PNC production of peptides that affect surrounding cells, may obliterate small airways, leading to a severe, progressive obstructive ventilatory defect. The amount of fibrosis varies, with greater amounts seen in tissue that also contains carcinoid tumorlets.3 In one report of 25 patients with typical carcinoid tumors, 76% had PNC hyperplasia associated with the carcinoid, and 32% had constrictive bronchiolitis associated with foci of PNC hyperplasia.4

DIPNECH falls within the spectrum of PNC hyperplasia that ranges from individual cells to carcinoid tumors. When the proliferation extends beyond the bronchiolar epithelium basement membrane or beyond the confines of the airway wall, the term “tumorlet” is appropriate. If tumorlets exceed 0.5 cm, they are designated as carcinoid tumors; thus, DIPNECH is believed to be a premalignant condition. Although most reported cases of DIPNECH-associated carcinoid tumors are typical bronchial carcinoids, atypical carcinoids with metastasis to hilar lymph nodes and distant organs also have been reported.3,5,6 The molecular underpinnings of this transformation are not known.

DIPNECH affects women more often than men, although the reason for this sex bias is not clear. Symptoms include chronic cough and exertional dyspnea that may be present for many years prior to diagnosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans show air trapping (demonstrated by mosaic attenuation accentuated on expiratory images) accompanied by multiple nodules and airway wall thickening.7,8 The largest study to date reported 19 patients with DIPNECH and described treatment in seven.3 The 5-year survival was 83% with varied therapeutic approaches. Although the literature contains several additional case reports and small case series, the pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment options for DIPNECH are not well described.6,7,9

To advance our understanding of the clinical features and evolution of this disease over time, we conducted a retrospective study of a convenience sample of 30 patients with DIPNECH diagnosed and evaluated at our institution. We also propose diagnostic criteria for DIPNECH with the hope of improving the accuracy and timing of diagnosis.

Subjects

This study was conducted in accordance with the amended Declaration of Helsinki. This protocol was approved by the National Jewish Health (NJH) Institutional Review Board (HS#2530). Ninety-three potential subjects were identified by query of the NJH Clinical Research Database for “neuroendocrine hyperplasia” and “age ≥ 18” and “high-resolution chest CT.” Of these 93 patients, 21 could be verified as having DIPNECH by a pathology report. From June 2011 to May 2013, nine additional patients were identified through the NJH pulmonary clinics, bringing the cohort to 30 subjects. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. The majority of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed at NJH according to American Thoracic Society standards. Results are reported as raw values and percentages of published age-, sex-, and height-specific normal values (eg, FEV1 % predicted [FEV1%]).10,11

Histopathology

Previously acquired lung biopsy specimens and surgical resections (performed between 2005 and 2012) from 18 subjects were available for review. Immunohistochemical staining using primary neuroendocrine antibodies (chromogranin, synatophysin, and CD56) were performed to confirm the presence of neuroendocrine cells. In each of the 18 cases, airways measuring < 2 mm in diameter were assessed. The total number of airways evaluated was compared with the number of airways showing neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, as demonstrated on hematoxylin and eosin staining and neuroendocrine immunostaining. Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia was characterized as being confined to the bronchial mucosa, as carcinoid tumorlets within the bronchial wall, or as carcinoid tumorlets growing beyond the limits of the bronchial wall. Note was made of changes consistent with constrictive bronchiolitis.

HRCT Scanning

Twenty-six subjects had at least one chest HRCT scan available for review. Two chest radiologists blinded to clinical data independently scored the scans, and discrepancies were resolved by a third chest radiologist. HRCT scans were scored for pertinent variables,8,12 including nodules (number, size, range, largest nodule, distribution), air trapping, bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilation, and parenchymal abnormalities. The predominant axial and zonal distribution of nodules was noted. Nodule size range was defined as the largest diameter of the majority of detected nodules. The size, location, shape, and margin characteristics of the largest nodule were assessed. Mosaic attenuation and air trapping was graded on a 4-point scale, with the predominant axial and zonal distribution recorded.

Statistical Methods

Descriptive statistics were generated for baseline data. For the longitudinal analysis of FEV1%, mixed-effects, piecewise linear regression models were used (Proc Mixed procedure in SAS version 9.2 software; SAS Institute Inc) that considered time as a continuous factor. These models used least squares to fit curves to the data to generate estimates for the mean FEV1% as a function of time in relation to DIPNECH diagnosis. An unstructured variance-covariance matrix was used to model the covariance structure among the repeated measures by subject. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS software. We considered P < .05 to represent statistical significance and did not adjust for multiple comparisons. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare radiology features of rapid progressors vs slow progressors. We defined rapid progression as a loss of 10% of the raw value of FEV1 within 2 years.

All subjects were women. The average age at diagnosis was 62 years. Baseline characteristics are presented in Table 1. The majority of subjects (63%) never smoked, and the remaining subjects had quit smoking prior to DIPECH diagnosis. The most common symptoms were chronic cough and dyspnea. In general, cough developed first, often more than 10 years prior to diagnosis. Medical records for the time prior to receiving a DIPNECH diagnosis were available for 27 subjects. Of these, 12 had been given a diagnosis of asthma, three COPD, and four bronchiolitis; none arrived at our institution with a diagnosis of DIPNECH.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Subject Characteristics

Data are presented as No. (%) and mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. DIPNECH = diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; Dlco = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; LAR = long-acting release; RV = residual volume.

Pulmonary Function Test

All 30 subjects had at least one set of PFTs, and 27 had more than one evaluation. The median duration of pulmonary function follow-up after the diagnosis of DIPNECH was 3.94 years (range, 0.34-13.89 years). Twenty-six of 30 subjects had obstructive physiology at the time of diagnosis or during the course of disease monitoring, and four had mixed physiology. At diagnosis, 16 subjects (53%) had severe obstruction with an FEV1% < 50%, and an additional three (10%) had very severe obstruction with an FEV1% < 30%. In general, the residual volume and total lung capacity were increased. Upon presentation to our institution, the mean diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 72.4 ± 17% predicted. Three subjects had a significant bronchodilator response according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Twelve of 21 subjects had desaturation (oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry ≤ 88%) on walk oximetry.

Data from the longitudinal analysis of FEV1% are shown in Figure 1. Although the data suggest progressive decline, statistically, none of the slopes for any piece of the regression line deviated from 0. Despite this finding, there was heterogeneity between individuals in the risk of worsening pulmonary function. Eight subjects were identified as having rapid progression (loss of 10% of raw FEV1 within 2 years of diagnosis), and another two subjects had significant long-term progression of disease. One subject died of progressive obliterative bronchiolitis due to DIPNECH.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  Longitudinal analysis of FEV1 % predicted within the diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia cohort. A, Modeled percentage mean FEV1 with time. Time 0 is time of diagnosis. Dashed lines indicate 95% CI. B, FEV1 % predicted over time for individual subjects.Grahic Jump Location
Pathology

Eighteen samples were available for microscopic examination: 11 surgical wedge biopsy specimens (61%), one segmentectomy specimen (6%), and six bronchoscopic biopsy specimens (33%). According to their diagnostic evaluations, 10 subjects had undergone bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies (Table 2). Samples from six of these biopsies were consistent with a diagnosis of DIPNECH, with one subject undergoing surgical biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Transbronchial biopsy specimens from the other four subjects were nondiagnostic, with three subjects undergoing surgical biopsy to confirm DIPNECH. The remaining subject was given a clinical diagnosis of DIPNECH. Several subjects received a diagnosis by needle biopsy of a pulmonary nodule to confirm a typical bronchial carcinoid in the setting of a high clinical suspicion for DIPNECH (eg, obstructive physiology, typical HRCT scan findings).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Pathology Specimens

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated.

Complete results of the histologic analysis are presented in Table 3. The number of slides evaluated per case ranged from two to 24 (mean, seven slides). The total number of airways evaluated per subject ranged from two to 20 (mean, 18 slides). Among subjects who had tissue available for pathologic review, 100% (18 of 18) had carcinoid tumorlets, and 28% (five of 18) had typical carcinoid tumors. Most of the airways evaluated demonstrated minimal to mild submucosal chronic inflammation. Constrictive bronchiolitis was present in eight of 18 subjects (44%). Of the five subjects with carcinoid tumors, two also had constrictive bronchiolitis. Constrictive bronchiolitis was noted in adjacent lung parenchyma and in airways without neuroendocrine cells in seven of 18 subjects (39%). The presence of constrictive bronchiolitis on histology did not predict rapid decline in FEV1%.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Pathology Review of Lung Biopsy Specimens

EBBX = endobronchial biopsy; PNCH = pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; TBBX = transbronchial biopsy.

Biomarkers

Seven subjects had an evaluation for serum chromogranin A, serum serotonin, and 24-h urine 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid levels. Four of the seven had elevated serum chromogranin A levels; the remaining biomarker levels were normal.

Radiologic Findings

All 26 subjects with HRCT scans available for review had pulmonary nodules (see Fig 2 for a representative image). The majority (16 of 26 [61.5%]) had > 20 pulmonary nodules, and more than one-third had innumerable nodules (> 50). In 24 of 26 subjects, the majority of nodules were 6 to 10 mm in diameter. Calcification within nodules was rare (3.8%). In 54% of subjects, the nodules were predominantly peribronchovascular, whereas in the remaining subjects, 46% of the nodules were peripheral. Nodules tended to be in the lower-lung (54%) or mid-lung (27%) fields. The largest nodule in each subject ranged from 4 to 40 mm, with a median size of 9.5 mm. Most nodules were round (15 of 26 [57.7%]) or oval (six of 25 [23.1%]) and well defined (19 of 26 [73.1%]). Between radiologists there was fair agreement of imaging findings (average κ = 0.347) and location of abnormalities (average κ = 0.373). There was no correlation between decline in FEV1% and the number or size of nodules on HRCT scan.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  Multiple axial images from chest CT scan in a patient with diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasia. A, Multiple scattered pulmonary nodules are present on inspiratory maximum intensity projected CT scan. B, Expiratory phase CT image shows extensive areas of lobular air trapping.Grahic Jump Location

Twenty-five of 26 subjects (96%) had air trapping, with the following percentage of segmented lung demonstrating air trapping on expiratory scans: 0% to 25%, one (4.0%); 26% to 50%, five (20.0%); 51% to 75%, 15 (60.0%); and 76% to 100%, four (16.0%). In the axial plane, air trapping was most often peripheral (81%) and lobular (46.2%) in configuration. In 21 of the 25 subjects with air trapping (84%), there was mosaic attenuation on inspiratory images, suggesting more-severe air trapping. Bronchial wall thickening was common, occurring in 80.1% of subjects, but bronchial dilation was uncommon (23.1%). Foci of subsegmental scarring or atelectasis occurred in the majority of subjects (73.1%).

Treatment

Octreotide is a somatostatin analog shown to reduce the hormonal hypersecretion of neuroendocrine cells in the setting of GI and bronchial carcinoids.13 Within the present cohort, 11 subjects received treatment with octreotide during the course of disease in the form of Sandostatin LAR (long-acting release) (Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation). Of these subjects, nine had repeat PFTs available for analysis while on therapy. There was no clear trend toward improved PFTs. While on octreotide, three subjects reported improvement in cough that allowed for increased social activity. Two subjects had elevated baseline serum chromogranin A levels decrease to the normal range while on octreotide.

We identified 30 patients with DIPNECH followed at our institution and detailed their clinical characteristics and disease course over time. To our knowledge, this DIPNECH cohort is the largest assembled. We observed a disease that predominately affects middle-aged women with slowly progressive physiologic lung obstruction. The striking sex bias of this disease has been observed in previous reports and remains unexplained.5

We observed substantial heterogeneity in longitudinal disease behavior. Although the modeled slopes for FEV1% suggest no significant declines over time for the population, there was a subset of subjects who progressed, some rapidly. There are no known predisposing factors to explain the variable clinical progression or prognosis associated with this disease. The fibrosis that accompanies foci of PNC hyperplasia—and even that which affects small airways lacking excess PNCs—has been attributed to the secretion of gastrin-releasing peptide and other substances secreted by the PNCs. These peptides require further study, but they are capable of stimulating fibroblast proliferation and promoting bronchoconstriction and chemotaxis of airway cells, which may lead to airway wall and peribronchiolar interstitial fibrosis.14 In the present cohort, we observed constrictive bronchiolitis in 44% of the subjects; however, the histologic presence of constrictive bronchiolitis was not a predictor of rapid progression of physiologic obstruction.

At diagnosis, the mean FEV1 was 50% predicted. Given the present and other investigators’ data suggesting that disease progression is typically gradual, most patients with DIPNECH have probably lived with the disease for many years prior to diagnostic confirmation. Upon presentation to our institution, many of the subjects had received a misdiagnosis of more common causes of obstructive airway disease, such as asthma (40%), despite only 10% having reversible airflow limitation. There is no known treatment of DIPNECH. Although octreotide therapy subjectively improved cough and lowered serum chromogranin A levels, there was no improvement in PFTs.

To date, investigators reporting on patients with DIPNECH have relied on surgical lung biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the setting of high clinical suspicion for DIPNECH, we believe that a diagnosis can be made with transbronchial biopsy specimens. Based on the data collected in this cohort, we propose diagnostic criteria for DIPNECH (Table 4) that require prospective evaluation prior to adoption. All subjects who had histopathology consistent with the WHO classification of DIPNECH met at least three of the proposed minor diagnostic criteria.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for DIPNECH

TLC = total lung capacity; Va = alveolar volume. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

Generalized proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells ± fibrosis, excluding other pathology that may induce reactive proliferation.

The finding of carcinoid tumors in some but not all patients with DIPNECH has led to the WHO classification of DIPNECH as a preinvasive disease. In the present study, 100% (18 of 18) of patients with DIPNECH had carcinoid tumorlets, and 28% (five of 18) had typical carcinoid tumors. Studies of cell proliferation in DIPNECH vs PNCs proliferating as a reaction to lung injury have shown expression of p53, p16, and Ki67 more consistently and earlier in DIPNECH than in secondary neuroendocrine cell proliferation,15suggesting a qualitative, possibly molecular difference between secondary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and that which occurs in DIPNECH. Molecular profiling of the lesions occurring in DIPNECH deserves future study.

DIPNECH is a neuroendocrine cell proliferation that is predominately seen in middle-aged women. The diagnosis often is delayed until moderate to severe obstruction is present. This disease needs to be considered in the setting of obstructive physiology, particularly when diffuse pulmonary nodules and mosaic pattern air trapping are present on HRCT scan. Further studies are needed to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, particularly the sex bias, and to test the proposed diagnostic criteria. A better understanding of the molecular underpinnings may pave the way for identifying therapeutic targets.

Author contributions: L. L. C. had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. L. L. C., J. H. C., R. D. A., and Z. L. contributed to the study design, data analysis, interpretation of results, writing and revision of the manuscript, and final approval of the manuscript; J. Y. R. and K. Y. contributed to the data collection and revision and final approval of the manuscript; R. M. T. and J. A. K. contributed to the study design, interpretation of results, and revision and final approval of the manuscript; and J. J. S. contributed to the statistical analysis, writing and revision of the manuscript, and final approval of the manuscript.

Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: Dr Tate is a shareholder in Amgen Inc, Pfizer Inc, Procter & Gamble, Kimberly-Clark, and Invesco Global Health Care Fund. Drs Carr, Chung, Duarte Achcar, Lesic, Rho, Yagihashi, Swigris, and Kern have reported that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

DIPNECH

diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia

FEV1%

FEV1 % predicted

HRCT

high-resolution CT

NJH

National Jewish Health

PFT

pulmonary function test

PNC

pulmonary neuroendocrine cell

WHO

World Health Organization

Travis WD. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004.
 
Aguayo SM, Miller YE, Waldron JA Jr, et al. Brief report: idiopathic diffuse hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and airways disease. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(18):1285-1288. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Davies SJ, Gosney JR, Hansell DM, et al. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: an under-recognised spectrum of disease. Thorax. 2007;62(3):248-252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Miller RR, Müller NL. Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with peripheral carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19(6):653-658. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gorshtein A, Gross DJ, Barak D, et al. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and the associated lung neuroendocrine tumors: clinical experience with a rare entity. Cancer. 2012;118(3):612-619. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johney EC, Pfannschmidt J, Rieker RJ, Schnabel PA, Mechtersheimer G, Dienemann H. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and a typical carcinoid tumor. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131(5):1207-1208. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Irshad S, McLean E, Rankin S, et al. Unilateral diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and multiple carcinoids treated with surgical resection. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5(6):921-923. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Koo CW, Baliff JP, Torigian DA, Litzky LA, Gefter WB, Akers SR. Spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell proliferation: diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, tumorlet, and carcinoids. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(3):661-668. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Adams H, Brack T, Kestenholz P, Vogt P, Steinert HC, Russi EW. Diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia causing severe airway obstruction in a patient with a carcinoid tumor. Respiration. 2006;73(5):690-693. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hankinson JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB. Spirometric reference values from a sample of the general U.S. population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):179-187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Crapo RO, Morris AH. Standardized single breath normal values for carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981;123(2):185-189. [PubMed]
 
Lee JS, Brown KK, Cool C, Lynch DA. Diffuse pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: radiologic and clinical features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2002;26(2):180-184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lamberts SWJ, van der Lely AJ, de Herder WW, Hofland LJ. Octreotide. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(4):246-254. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zhou S, Nissao E, Jackson IL, et al. Radiation-induced lung injury is mitigated by blockade of gastrin-releasing peptide. Am J Pathol. 2013;182(4):1248-1254. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gosney JR, Williams IJ, Dodson AR, Foster CS. Morphology and antigen expression profile of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in reactive proliferations and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH). Histopathology. 2011;59(4):751-762. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1 –  Longitudinal analysis of FEV1 % predicted within the diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia cohort. A, Modeled percentage mean FEV1 with time. Time 0 is time of diagnosis. Dashed lines indicate 95% CI. B, FEV1 % predicted over time for individual subjects.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2 –  Multiple axial images from chest CT scan in a patient with diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasia. A, Multiple scattered pulmonary nodules are present on inspiratory maximum intensity projected CT scan. B, Expiratory phase CT image shows extensive areas of lobular air trapping.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1 ]  Subject Characteristics

Data are presented as No. (%) and mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. DIPNECH = diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; Dlco = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; LAR = long-acting release; RV = residual volume.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2 ]  Pathology Specimens

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise indicated.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3 ]  Pathology Review of Lung Biopsy Specimens

EBBX = endobronchial biopsy; PNCH = pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; TBBX = transbronchial biopsy.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4 ]  Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for DIPNECH

TLC = total lung capacity; Va = alveolar volume. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

Generalized proliferation of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells ± fibrosis, excluding other pathology that may induce reactive proliferation.

References

Travis WD. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004.
 
Aguayo SM, Miller YE, Waldron JA Jr, et al. Brief report: idiopathic diffuse hyperplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and airways disease. N Engl J Med. 1992;327(18):1285-1288. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Davies SJ, Gosney JR, Hansell DM, et al. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: an under-recognised spectrum of disease. Thorax. 2007;62(3):248-252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Miller RR, Müller NL. Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and obliterative bronchiolitis in patients with peripheral carcinoid tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19(6):653-658. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gorshtein A, Gross DJ, Barak D, et al. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and the associated lung neuroendocrine tumors: clinical experience with a rare entity. Cancer. 2012;118(3):612-619. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johney EC, Pfannschmidt J, Rieker RJ, Schnabel PA, Mechtersheimer G, Dienemann H. Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and a typical carcinoid tumor. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;131(5):1207-1208. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Irshad S, McLean E, Rankin S, et al. Unilateral diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia and multiple carcinoids treated with surgical resection. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5(6):921-923. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Koo CW, Baliff JP, Torigian DA, Litzky LA, Gefter WB, Akers SR. Spectrum of pulmonary neuroendocrine cell proliferation: diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia, tumorlet, and carcinoids. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(3):661-668. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Adams H, Brack T, Kestenholz P, Vogt P, Steinert HC, Russi EW. Diffuse idiopathic neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia causing severe airway obstruction in a patient with a carcinoid tumor. Respiration. 2006;73(5):690-693. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hankinson JL, Odencrantz JR, Fedan KB. Spirometric reference values from a sample of the general U.S. population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159(1):179-187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Crapo RO, Morris AH. Standardized single breath normal values for carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981;123(2):185-189. [PubMed]
 
Lee JS, Brown KK, Cool C, Lynch DA. Diffuse pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: radiologic and clinical features. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2002;26(2):180-184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lamberts SWJ, van der Lely AJ, de Herder WW, Hofland LJ. Octreotide. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(4):246-254. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zhou S, Nissao E, Jackson IL, et al. Radiation-induced lung injury is mitigated by blockade of gastrin-releasing peptide. Am J Pathol. 2013;182(4):1248-1254. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gosney JR, Williams IJ, Dodson AR, Foster CS. Morphology and antigen expression profile of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in reactive proliferations and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH). Histopathology. 2011;59(4):751-762. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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