In cardiac surgery, preoperative mortality risk assessment tools like the EuroSCORE help to guide physicians in optimizing perioperative care of patients. We investigated the value of preoperative levels of inflammatory (procalcitonin [PCT]) and vasoactive (C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin [CT-proAVP], midregional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP], midregional proadrenomedullin [MR-proADM], and C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 [CT-proET-1]) biomarkers for risk assessment of mortality and morbidity and compared it with the EuroSCORE.
We performed a prospective observational cohort study in a single-center academic medical hospital and analyzed 746 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. In a directly preoperative blood sample, we assessed PCT, CT-proAVP, MR-proANP, MR-proADM, and CT-proET-1 levels.
In single-variable logistic regression models, all biomarkers predicted 30-day mortality. The biomarkers CT-proET-1 (C statistic, 0.785; 95% CI, 0.687-0.883) and MR-proADM (C statistic, 0.780; 95% CI, 0.671-0.889) predicted 30-day mortality. For the EuroSCORE, the C statistic was 0.689 (95% CI, 0.594-0.784). There was a significant improvement in the prediction of 30-day mortality when the EuroSCORE was combined with MR-proADM (C statistic, 0.792; 95% CI, 0.699-0.884) or CT-proET-1 (C statistic, 0.798; 95% CI, 0.715-0.880). The model with EuroSCORE, MR-proADM, and CT-proET1 had the highest C statistic of 0.803 (95% CI, 0.717-0.890) and was significantly better than the EuroSCORE alone.
In elective cardiac surgery, preoperative levels of MR-proADM and CT-proET-1 are predictors of 30-day mortality and could improve the predictive accuracy of the EuroSCORE. Further research should confirm the place of these new biomarkers in the prediction of mortality and identification of patients at risk.