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Original Research: Pulmonary Vascular Disease |

Rethinking Guidelines for VTE Risk Among Nursing Home ResidentsIdentifying VTE Risk Among Nursing Home Residents: A Population-Based Study Merging Medical Record Detail With Standardized Nursing Home Assessments FREE TO VIEW

Cynthia L. Leibson, PhD; Tanya M. Petterson, MS; Carin Y. Smith, BS; Kent R. Bailey, PhD; Jane A. Emerson, RN; Aneel A. Ashrani, MD; Paul Y. Takahashi, MD; John A. Heit, MD
Author and Funding Information

From the Division of Epidemiology (Dr Leibson and Ms Emerson) and the Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics (Mss Petterson and Smith and Dr Bailey), Department of Health Sciences Research, and the Division of Hematology (Drs Ashrani and Heit), Division of Primary Care (Dr Takahashi), and Division of Cardiovascular Disease (Dr Heit), Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

CORRESPONDENCE TO: Cynthia L. Leibson, PhD, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905; e-mail: leibson@mayo.edu


Parts of this study were presented at the American Society of Hematology 52nd Annual Meeting, December 4-7, 2010, Orlando, FL.

FUNDING/SUPPORT: This study was funded by National Institutes of Health [Grants R01AG 31027-4 and R01HL 66216-9]. Study data were obtained from the Rochester Epidemiology Project, which is supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health [Award number R01 AG034676].

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2014;146(2):412-421. doi:10.1378/chest.13-2652
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BACKGROUND:  Nursing home (NH) residents are at increased risk for both VTE and bleeding from pharmacologic prophylaxis. Construction of prophylaxis guidelines is hampered by NH-specific limitations with VTE case identification and characterization of risk. We addressed these limitations by merging detailed provider-linked Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) medical records with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Minimum Data Set (MDS) NH assessments.

METHODS:  This population-based nested case-control study identified all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents with first-lifetime VTE October 1, 1998, through December 31, 2005, while a resident of an NH (N = 91) and one to two age-, sex-, and calendar year-matched NH non-VTE control subjects. For each NH case without hospitalization 3 months before VTE (n = 23), we additionally identified three to four nonhospitalized NH control subjects. REP and MDS records were reviewed before index date (VTE date for cases; respective REP encounter date for control subjects) for numerous characteristics previously associated with VTE in non-NH populations. Data were modeled using conditional logistic regression.

RESULTS:  The multivariate model consisting of all cases and control subjects identified only three characteristics independently associated with VTE: respiratory infection vs no infection (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.6-13.1), extensive or total assistance with walking in room (5.6, 2.5-12.6), and general surgery (3.3, 1.0-10.8). In analyses limited to nonhospitalized cases and control subjects, only nonrespiratory infection vs no infection was independently associated with VTE (8.8, 2.7-29.2).

CONCLUSIONS:  Contrary to previous assumptions, most VTE risk factors identified in non-NH populations do not apply to the NH population. NH residents with infection, substantial mobility limitations, or recent general surgery should be considered potential candidates for VTE prophylaxis.

VTE, including DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), is relatively common, potentially life threatening, and costly.14 VTE incidence can be reduced with appropriate prophylaxis. However, risk stratification is required to avoid unnecessary, costly therapy and potentially serious consequences.5 Risk stratification is especially critical within the nursing home (NH) setting. Using Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage resources, we previously reported that odds of VTE among NH residents were 5.6 times those for non-NH residents, even adjusted for other established risk factors.6 Furthermore, NH residency accounted for 13% of all incident VTE cases within the population.7 Thus, reducing VTE incidence among NH residents would contribute to reductions within the population generally. Importantly, however, NH residents exhibit several characteristics (eg, advanced age, low body weight, hypertension, stroke, and polypharmacy) associated with adverse consequences from anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis.8,9

Despite growing recognition of the importance of risk assessment and appropriate targeting of prophylaxis within the NH setting,814 evidence needed to inform NH-specific recommendations is lacking. The very few population-based studies typically identified NH VTE using diagnosis codes from administrative data.15,16 Limitations of this approach were demonstrated in a previous study among Olmsted County, Minnesota, NH residents.16 Using REP resources, 161 cases were identified; only 53 were identified using NH administrative data. Other differences between REP and administrative data (ie, proportions with PE [62% vs 21%] and 1-year survival [45% vs 76%]) suggest that NH administrative data are biased against case subjects who died before next assessment.

Because of difficulties with NH VTE case ascertainment, recommendations for VTE risk stratification within the NH, including American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) guidelines,5,9,1620 have been largely restricted to extrapolation from general population or hospital studies. Such extrapolation was challenged with another REP study, published as a brief report.21 That study was limited to three factors known to account for the majority of VTE events among the general Olmsted County population (ie, recent hospitalization, recent trauma, and active cancer).7 These factors failed to sufficiently characterize VTE risk among Olmsted County NH residents.21 However, we did not explore other clinical characteristics or functional status and mobility limitations, two measures not routinely documented in REP resources but of potential relevance for NH residents.17,22

The current study addresses the recognized need for data on VTE risk among NH residents.814 Previous limitations are minimized by using REP resources to identify both NH VTE cases and control subjects and comprehensively explore clinical factors and then by merging with Centers of Medicare and Medicare Services (CMS) Minimum Data Set (MDS) NH assessments23 to obtain standardized measures of functional status and mobility. Combining data from both sources will help inform practice guidelines for reducing VTE and its adverse consequences within the NH setting.

This population-based case-control study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota (2010 census population = 144,248). Rochester, the county seat, is geographically isolated from other urban centers and home to Mayo Clinic, one of the world’s largest medical centers. Thus, county residents receive medical care from very few providers, primarily Mayo Clinic and another group practice, Olmsted Medical Center, and affiliated hospitals.24 Since 1907, every patient at Mayo is assigned a unique identifier. All information (medical history, clinical assessments, consultations, dismissal summaries, surgical procedures, laboratory/radiology/pathology/autopsy results, correspondence, and death certificates) from every contact (eg, office, NH, ED, hospital) is contained within a unit medical record. Under auspices of the REP, this records linkage was expanded to include non-Mayo providers of care to county residents.24

Study Sample

REP resources were used to identify all Olmsted County residents with symptomatic objectively diagnosed VTE.7,25,26 Cases included all county residents, regardless of age, sex, or symptom-onset location (eg, community, hospital, NH). Explicit case criteria were applied following medical record review from date first seen until earliest of death or last REP encounter by trained experienced nurse abstractors under direction of a board-certified vascular medicine specialist (J. A. H.). Variables abstracted included diagnostic method, symptom-onset location, and event type (DVT, PE, or both; chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). DVT was considered objectively diagnosed when acute symptoms/signs were present and confirmed using venography, compression venous duplex ultrasonography, impedance plethysmography, CT venography, MRI, pathology examination of surgically removed thrombus, or autopsy. PE was considered objectively diagnosed when acute symptoms/signs were present and confirmed using pulmonary angiography, ventilation and perfusion lung scan interpreted as high probability for PE, CT pulmonary angiography, MRI, pathology examination of surgically removed thrombus, or autopsy.7,25,26

For this NH study, VTE cases included all county residents with first-lifetime objectively diagnosed VTE between NH admission and discharge, regardless of symptom-onset location. Because NH residents may experience lower rates of symptom reporting, diagnostic testing, and autopsy compared with the general population,27 we also included events that only met possible VTE criteria (physician-diagnosed DVT/PE plus signs/symptoms consistent with DVT/PE and anticoagulant treatment or surgical procedure for DVT/PE).4

REP resources also afford enumeration of the entire Olmsted County population from which non-VTE control subjects can be sampled.28 Similar to REP studies of VTE within the general population,25,26 for each NH case, all Olmsted County residents of same sex, similar birth year (± 1 year), and an REP encounter within ± 1 year of case subject’s VTE were identified as potential control subjects.

Information on NH residency of potential control subjects was facilitated with access to Minnesota CMS MDS NH assessments.23 MDS was developed following the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act requirement that all Medicare- and Medicaid-certified long-term care facilities assess each resident (regardless of payer status) at specified times throughout their stay. Each individual is assigned an anonymous identifier that is maintained for all admissions across all facilities. Assessments include resident and NH identifiers, admission/discharge/assessment dates, admission source, discharge disposition, and reason for assessment. From the list of all potential control subjects for each case, REP and MDS data on sex, birth date, death date, Social Security number, and other information were used to select two individuals who were local NH residents. For each NH case without hospitalization 3 months before index, we additionally identified three to four nonhospitalized NH control subjects. The study period was October 1, 1998 (date MDS files became available for research) through December 31, 2005.

This study was approved by Mayo Clinic (PR07-006750-06) and Olmsted Medical Center (011-OMC-08) institutional review boards. Informed consent was obtained from individuals for medical data use; those who declined authorization for use of medical records in research were excluded (typically < 6% in REP studies).29,30

VTE Risk Factors

Each subject was assigned an index date (VTE date for cases, REP encounter date for matched control subjects). Using definitions and abstraction protocols used in REP general population studies,6,7,26 nurse abstractors reviewed REP medical records for demographic and clinical characteristics to be investigated as potential VTE risk factors (e-Appendix 1). REP data were supplemented with CMS MDS data. MDS assessments include standardized information on demographics/cognition/communication/hearing/vision/mood/behavior/and activity, physical functioning and structural problems, psychosocial well-being, continence, selected diagnoses/health conditions, oral/nutritional/dental status, skin condition, medications, special treatments/procedures, discharge potential, and overall status.22 Our use of MDS benefitted from previous experience using NH assessment data.16,21,3134

MDS includes > 400 variables; > 90% were excluded from consideration because (1) they were of limited relevance for VTE risk, (2) REP afforded better information,16 or (3) > 20% of subjects were missing data. Availability of information varies by assessment type. We considered all assessment types, preferring admission, annual, or quarterly assessments; those conducted for significant change in status; or those required by Medicare within 100 days following NH admission/readmission. We selected closest assessment before index for cases and before or after index for control subjects.

Statistical Analysis

REP and MDS characteristics were summarized using descriptive statistics. All variables under consideration were modeled univariately (ie, unadjusted for other variables) using conditional logistic regression. To identify a multivariable model including REP and MDS characteristics, we used stepwise conditional logistic modeling with P value < .05 to enter and leave the model (Score and Wald statistics, respectively). Interactions between remaining variables and age, sex, and calendar year were assessed. Diagnostics (eg, influence statistics) were used to assess model fit. Two analyses were conducted: first, considering all cases and matched control subjects; second, considering nonhospitalized cases and separately matched nonhospitalized control subjects.

Ninety-nine Olmsted County residents experienced first-lifetime symptomatic VTE from October 1, 1998, through December 31, 2005, after admission to and before discharge from any of nine NHs within or bordering Olmsted County. Analyses were limited to matched sets where the case and at least one control subject had an MDS assessment of the preferred types within 6 months of index (91 cases, 180 control subjects). Twenty-eight cases (31%) were PE ± DVT; 63 (69%) were DVT alone. Eighty-seven cases (96%) met criteria for objectively diagnosed VTE. Case subjects and control subjects exhibited similar age and sex distributions, because of matching; race/ethnicity and education were also similar (Table 1).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1  ] Selected Characteristics of Olmsted County Residents Who Experienced a First Lifetime VTE While a Resident of a Local NH (Cases) October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, and Age- and Sex-Matched NH Residents Who Had Not Experienced a VTE (Control Subjects)

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. NA = not applicable; NH = nursing home; PE = pulmonary embolism.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Of 71 DVT events, six were proximal arm DVT, and all remaining were proximal or distal leg DVT. There were no abdominal or cerebral vein thromboses.

Table 2 provides univariate analyses results for selected characteristics obtained from MDS. All results for which case subjects differed significantly from control subjects are provided; some nonsignificant characteristics associated with VTE in other NH studies are included.16,17,22 Source of most recent NH admission appeared similar. Number of NH days (ie, index date minus most recent admission date) was significantly higher for case vs control subjects. Of multiple MDS mobility measures, several differed significantly between case and control subjects. Case subjects also exhibited a nonsignificant trend for greater need for assistance with locomotion on unit. None of the other 38 MDS characteristics considered in univariate analyses differed significantly between case and control subjects (data upon request).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2  ] CMS MDS Data: Univariate Analyses (ie, Unadjusted for Other Variables) of Selected Baseline NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. For cases, baseline was defined as date of the assessment that was closest to but before index. For control subjects, baseline was defined as date of the assessment that was closest to index. CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; MDS = Minimum Data Set. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Source of admission for most recent NH admission. As is apparent from interquartile range for number of NH days and, as suggested here, date of index minus date of most recent admission could be far greater than 3 mo before index.

c 

Days were calculated as index date minus most recent NH admission date. For NH residents whose most recent admission was before study start date of October 1, 1998, days were calculated as index date minus October 1, 1998. OR values are for each 30-d increase in stay.

d 

From baseline MDS assessment; data represent activity within the prior 7 d.

e 

Walking or self-sufficient wheeling.

f 

From variable Q2 on baseline MDS assessment; data represent comparison of baseline care needs to those 90 d prior (or to those at last assessment if < 90 d ago).

Table 3 provides univariate analyses results for characteristics obtained from REP record review. Of all characteristics included in e-Appendix 1, Table 3 includes all those for which case subjects differed significantly from control subjects plus selected others frequently implicated as VTE risk factors in community or hospital studies. Hospitalization was not significant; P values with and without surgery were .38 and .61, respectively. Significant differences were limited to superficial vein thrombosis, varicose veins, neurologic disease with leg paresis, β-blockers, central venous catheter, general surgery, and infection. For 66% of cases and 78% of control subjects with pharmacologic prophylaxis, hospitalization was determined by nurse abstractors to be the indication for prophylaxis. Thus, the remaining 34% of cases and 22% of control subjects represented chronic anticoagulation for another indication (eg, atrial fibrillation, mechanical heart valve, and so forth). The median durations of heparin (7.0 days vs 4.0 days) and warfarin (13.5 days vs 7.5 days) prophylaxis were longer for case subjects than control subjects. However, the time from prophylaxis stop date to index date was longer for case subjects (16.5 days) compared with control subjects (4.0 days).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3  ] REP Data: Univariate Analyses (ie, Unadjusted for Other Variables) of Selected Baseline Clinical Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. For each variable, information had to be documented in the medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, and varicose veins (any time before index) and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). REP = Rochester Epidemiology Project. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Fracture defined as radiologic confirmed major fracture (skull, mandible, ribs, spine, pelvis, long bones) or fracture of lower extremity bones (ankle, metatarsals, phalanges) requiring immobilization by casting/boot; trauma defined as any of the following resulting in hospital admission: fracture as defined previously or multiple rib fractures or severe soft tissue injury or suspected internal injuries.

c 

Heparin, warfarin, or mechanical.

d 

Includes statin and nonstatin.

e 

Respiratory infection includes clinical diagnoses of influenza, pneumonia, lower respiratory infection (including bronchitis), and upper respiratory infection (including sinusitis).

f 

Includes general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, gynecologic surgery, cardiac surgery, or anesthesia.

g 

Anesthesia includes general anesthesia and epidural/spinal anesthesia, as well as conscious sedation, nerve block, and other regional anesthesia (eg, for biopsy, upper and lower GI endoscopy, bronchoscopy, transesophageal echocardiography, cystoscopy, and so forth).

Multivariate analyses included all REP characteristics listed in e-Appendix 1 and 12 MDS mobility variables. The final model consisted of only three characteristics that were independently associated with VTE risk (Table 4). With “infection groups” categorized as shown, the OR (95% CI) for “respiratory infection” was 5.86 (2.62-13.09). To investigate whether this association resulted from misclassification of PE symptoms as “respiratory infection,” medical records of all 16 PE events with relevant diagnoses were reviewed; respiratory infection was confirmed by radiograph or culture for 15. Moreover, “respiratory infection” was significantly associated with both PE and DVT (data upon request). The second variable to enter the model was “walking in room”; categorized as shown, the OR (95% CI) for “extensive or total assistance” was 5.57 (2.46-12.61). General surgery was the last variable in the final model; OR (95% CI) was 3.32 (1.02-10.84).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4  ] Combined REP and CMS MDS Data: Final Results From Multivariate Analyses of Clinical Plus NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, Including All 91 NH VTE Cases and 180 NH Non-VTE Control Subjects

See Table 1-3 legends for expansion of abbreviations.

a 

Baseline was defined differently for clinical and NH characteristics. For clinical characteristics, baseline information had to be documented in REP medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, varicose veins (any time before index), and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). For NH characteristics, baseline for cases was date of the MDS assessment that was closest to but before index, and baseline for control subjects was date of the assessment that was closest to index.

b 

P value from Score test.

c 

P value from Wald test.

d 

From baseline MDS assessment; data represent activity within the prior 7 d.

To consider lower rates of diagnostic testing and/or autopsy among NH residents compared with community-dwelling individuals,27 this study included possible as well as objectively diagnosed VTE events. Results were essentially unchanged after excluding the four possible cases and respective control subjects (data upon request).

There were 23 NH VTE cases without hospitalization 3 months before index and 91 age-, sex-, and calendar year-matched nonhospitalized NH control subjects. Table 5 provides multivariate analyses results. Infection was the only variable to enter and remain in the model. Need for assistance with self-transfer, indicative of substantial immobility, reached borderline significance only, likely because of insufficient sample size.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5  ] Combined REP and CMS MDS Data: Final Results From Multivariate Analyses of Clinical Plus NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, Limited to the 23 NH VTE Cases and Respective 92 NH Non-VTE Control Subjects Not Hospitalized Within 3 Mo Before Index

See Table 1-3 legends for expansion of abbreviations.

a 

Baseline was defined differently for clinical and NH characteristics. For clinical characteristics, baseline information had to be documented in REP medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, varicose veins (any time before index) and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). For NH characteristics, baseline for cases was date of the MDS assessment that was closest to but before index, and baseline for control subjects was date of the assessment that was closest to index.

b 

P value from Score test.

c 

P value from Wald test.

This population-based study provides some of the first reliable data, to our knowledge, on characteristics associated with VTE risk among NH residents. Of numerous characteristics examined, the only independent risk factors were infection, marked immobility, and general surgery. Although these factors have been independently associated with VTE risk in some general population or hospital studies,1,3538 we found higher OR values for infection and immobility among NH residents. Importantly, we did not find independent associations between VTE risk and most risk factors identified in community and hospital studies. These findings reinforce our previous report that three characteristics known to account for a substantial proportion of VTE events in the general population (ie, recent hospitalization, recent trauma, active cancer) exhibited markedly lower OR values within the NH population.21

VTE prophylaxis recommendations for nonsurgical NH residents, typically, distinguish acute from chronic, stable illness.5,9,18 Such distinction may be questioned by our observations that, compared with matched control subjects, NH case subjects exhibited (1) a lower percentage with change in care needs at their baseline assessment, and (2) similar percentages with recent hospitalization, and that infection was an independent risk factor, both overall and for nonhospitalized NH residents.

Study strengths include the complete spectrum of recognized NH VTE, including fatal and nonhospitalized events. VTE was defined using strict criteria following review of detailed provider-linked medical records (including imaging/surgical/autopsy reports). Incident VTE was distinguished from recurrent events and sequelae. NH control subjects were drawn from the same community; individuals with prior VTE were excluded as control subjects. Subjects were followed across acute and long-term care settings, permitting investigation of simultaneous contributions of clinical and NH assessment data to VTE risk. To our knowledge, no other studies have accessed both clinical and NH sources to carefully identify and fully characterize NH VTE.

Estimates are for a single geographic population, which in 2010 was 86% white. Olmsted County is similar to all Upper Midwest states with respect to age, sex, and racial distributions, as well as chronic disease prevalence and medical care use; however, median income and education are higher.24,39,40 Of note, VTE risk factors identified for all Olmsted County residents6,26 are similar to those for other population-based studies that carefully ascertained VTE.1,35 Although no single geographic area is representative of all others, the underrepresentation of minorities and relatively few providers compromises the generalizability of study findings to racial/ethnic groups and health-care environments different from those represented. Some PE events are only identified at autopsy. Recognized low autopsy rates for NH residents27 may have resulted in missing events. NH residency as of index was required for all subjects; however, cases and control subjects were not matched on length of NH exposure (defined as index minus most recent admission). By definition, residents with more NH person-days at risk have greater (cumulative) probability of experiencing VTE as an NH resident. Thus, the greater NH days for case subjects compared with control subjects was likely attributable to study design, and number of NH days was not allowed to compete in the multivariate model. To address concerns regarding differential exposure, a separate analysis was conducted in which NH days were added to the final model. Findings were essentially unchanged (data upon request).

In conclusion, study findings caution against using results from non-NH populations to inform practice guidelines for NH residents. Findings also suggest that NH residents with infection, substantial mobility limitations, or recent general surgery should be considered potential candidates for VTE prophylaxis. Of concern, however, is that although we previously showed that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis rates within 3 months before index appeared higher for NH VTE cases and control subjects compared with the elderly population generally, the prophylaxis failure rate among NH residents was disturbingly high.21 Moreover, decisions regarding which NH residents to prophylax involve multiple considerations separate from VTE risk (eg, clinical contraindications, reduced life expectancy, patient/caregiver wishes, quality-of-life issues). These concerns emphasize the need for further investigation regarding costs and benefits of pharmacologic prophylaxis within the NH population. Only a clinical trial can answer questions regarding the efficacy and safety of such prophylaxis. Our goal is to inform such a trial by identifying those high VTE-risk NH residents who would potentially benefit most from thromboprophylaxis.

Author contributions: C. L. L. had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. C. L. L., T. M. P., C. Y. S., K. R. B., J. A. E., A. A. A., P. Y. T., and J. A. H. contributed to interpretation of findings and manuscript preparation; C. L. L., K. R. B., and J. A. H. contributed to study concept and design; C. L. L. and J. A. H. contributed to securing funding; T. M. P. and C. Y. S. contributed to statistical programming; T. M. P., C. Y. S., and K. R. B. contributed to data analysis; and J. A. E. contributed to data abstraction.

Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

Other contributions: We thank Catherine Brandel, RN, and Diadra Else, RN, for excellent data abstraction. Written consent for this acknowledgment was obtained from each.

Role of sponsors: The sponsors had no role in the design of the study, the collection and analysis of the data, or the preparation of the manuscript

Additional information: The e-Appendix can be found in the Supplemental Materials section of the online article.

CMS

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services

MDS

Minimum Data Set

NH

nursing home

PE

pulmonary embolism

REP

Rochester Epidemiology Project

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Melton LJ III. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996;71(3):266-274. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heit JA. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(3):370-372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ III. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(6):809-815. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gross JS, Neufeld RR, Libow LS, Gerber I, Rodstein M. Autopsy study of the elderly institutionalized patient. Review of 234 autopsies. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(1):173-176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Yawn BP, Melton LJ III, Rocca WA. Use of a medical records linkage system to enumerate a dynamic population over time: the Rochester epidemiology project. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(9):1059-1068. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Melton LJ III. The threat to medical-records research. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(20):1466-1470. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jacobsen SJ, Xia Z, Campion ME, et al. Potential effect of authorization bias on medical record research. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74(4):330-338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leibson CL, Ransom JE, Brown RD, O’Fallon WM, Hass SL, Whisnant JP. Stroke-attributable nursing home use: a population-based study. Neurology. 1998;51(1):163-168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leibson CL, Tosteson AN, Gabriel SE, Ransom JE, Melton LJ. Mortality, disability, and nursing home use for persons with and without hip fracture: a population-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(10):1644-1650. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown RD Jr, Ransom J, Hass S, et al. Use of nursing home after stroke and dependence on stroke severity: a population-based analysis. Stroke. 1999;30(5):924-929. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hass SL, Ransom JE, Brown RD Jr, O’Fallon WM, Whisnant JP, Leibson CL. The impact of stroke on the cost and level of care in nursing homes: a retrospective population-based study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76(5):493-500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Samama MM. An epidemiologic study of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in medical outpatients: the Sirius study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(22):3415-3420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Smeeth L, Cook C, Thomas S, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Vallance P. Risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after acute infection in a community setting. Lancet. 2006;367(9516):1075-1079. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Clayton TC, Gaskin M, Meade TW. Recent respiratory infection and risk of venous thromboembolism: case-control study through a general practice database. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(3):819-827. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Schmidt M, Horvath-Puho E, Thomsen RW, Smeeth L, Sørensen HT. Acute infections and venous thromboembolism. J Intern Med. 2012;271(6):608-618. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Leibson CL, Yawn BP, Melton LJ III, Rocca WA. Generalizability of epidemiological findings and public health decisions: an illustration from the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(2):151-160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare website. http://www.dartmouthatlas.org/. Accessed October 24, 2013.
 

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 1  ] Selected Characteristics of Olmsted County Residents Who Experienced a First Lifetime VTE While a Resident of a Local NH (Cases) October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, and Age- and Sex-Matched NH Residents Who Had Not Experienced a VTE (Control Subjects)

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. NA = not applicable; NH = nursing home; PE = pulmonary embolism.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Of 71 DVT events, six were proximal arm DVT, and all remaining were proximal or distal leg DVT. There were no abdominal or cerebral vein thromboses.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 2  ] CMS MDS Data: Univariate Analyses (ie, Unadjusted for Other Variables) of Selected Baseline NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. For cases, baseline was defined as date of the assessment that was closest to but before index. For control subjects, baseline was defined as date of the assessment that was closest to index. CMS = Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; MDS = Minimum Data Set. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Source of admission for most recent NH admission. As is apparent from interquartile range for number of NH days and, as suggested here, date of index minus date of most recent admission could be far greater than 3 mo before index.

c 

Days were calculated as index date minus most recent NH admission date. For NH residents whose most recent admission was before study start date of October 1, 1998, days were calculated as index date minus October 1, 1998. OR values are for each 30-d increase in stay.

d 

From baseline MDS assessment; data represent activity within the prior 7 d.

e 

Walking or self-sufficient wheeling.

f 

From variable Q2 on baseline MDS assessment; data represent comparison of baseline care needs to those 90 d prior (or to those at last assessment if < 90 d ago).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 3  ] REP Data: Univariate Analyses (ie, Unadjusted for Other Variables) of Selected Baseline Clinical Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005

Data are presented as No. (%) unless otherwise noted. For each variable, information had to be documented in the medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, and varicose veins (any time before index) and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). REP = Rochester Epidemiology Project. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviations.

a 

P value from Score test.

b 

Fracture defined as radiologic confirmed major fracture (skull, mandible, ribs, spine, pelvis, long bones) or fracture of lower extremity bones (ankle, metatarsals, phalanges) requiring immobilization by casting/boot; trauma defined as any of the following resulting in hospital admission: fracture as defined previously or multiple rib fractures or severe soft tissue injury or suspected internal injuries.

c 

Heparin, warfarin, or mechanical.

d 

Includes statin and nonstatin.

e 

Respiratory infection includes clinical diagnoses of influenza, pneumonia, lower respiratory infection (including bronchitis), and upper respiratory infection (including sinusitis).

f 

Includes general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, gynecologic surgery, cardiac surgery, or anesthesia.

g 

Anesthesia includes general anesthesia and epidural/spinal anesthesia, as well as conscious sedation, nerve block, and other regional anesthesia (eg, for biopsy, upper and lower GI endoscopy, bronchoscopy, transesophageal echocardiography, cystoscopy, and so forth).

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 4  ] Combined REP and CMS MDS Data: Final Results From Multivariate Analyses of Clinical Plus NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, Including All 91 NH VTE Cases and 180 NH Non-VTE Control Subjects

See Table 1-3 legends for expansion of abbreviations.

a 

Baseline was defined differently for clinical and NH characteristics. For clinical characteristics, baseline information had to be documented in REP medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, varicose veins (any time before index), and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). For NH characteristics, baseline for cases was date of the MDS assessment that was closest to but before index, and baseline for control subjects was date of the assessment that was closest to index.

b 

P value from Score test.

c 

P value from Wald test.

d 

From baseline MDS assessment; data represent activity within the prior 7 d.

Table Graphic Jump Location
TABLE 5  ] Combined REP and CMS MDS Data: Final Results From Multivariate Analyses of Clinical Plus NH Characteristics as Potential Risk Factors for DVT or PE Among Olmsted County Residents of Local NHs October 1, 1998, Through December 31, 2005, Limited to the 23 NH VTE Cases and Respective 92 NH Non-VTE Control Subjects Not Hospitalized Within 3 Mo Before Index

See Table 1-3 legends for expansion of abbreviations.

a 

Baseline was defined differently for clinical and NH characteristics. For clinical characteristics, baseline information had to be documented in REP medical records within 3 mo before index, except for diabetes, superficial vein thrombosis, varicose veins (any time before index) and active malignancy (± 3 mo of index). For NH characteristics, baseline for cases was date of the MDS assessment that was closest to but before index, and baseline for control subjects was date of the assessment that was closest to index.

b 

P value from Score test.

c 

P value from Wald test.

References

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Silverstein MD, Heit JA, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ III. Trends in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a 25-year population-based study. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(6):585-593. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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Dharmarajan TS, Nanda A, Agarwal B, et al. Prevention of venous thromboembolism: practice patterns in 17 geographically diverse long term care facilities in the United States: part 1 of 2 (an AMDA Foundation project). J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13(3):298-302. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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Choi M, Hector M. Management of venous thromboembolism for older adults in long-term care facilities. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2012;24(6):335-344. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Messinger-Rapport BJ. Risk of venous thromboembolism in long-term care residents: what do we know now? J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2010;11(3):159-160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Haas S, Spyropoulos AC. Primary prevention of venous thromboembolism in long-term care: identifying and managing the risk. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2008;14(2):149-158. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gomes JP, Shaheen WH, Truong SV, Brown EF, Beasley BW, Gajewski BJ. Incidence of venous thromboembolic events among nursing home residents. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(11):934-936. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Liebson CL, Petterson TM, Bailey KR, Melton LJ III, Heit JA. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in nursing home residents. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(2):151-157. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Zarowitz BJ, Tangalos E, Lefkovitz A, et al. Thrombotic risk and immobility in residents of long-term care facilities. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2010;11(3):211-221. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Yeznach Wick J. Treat VTE in long-term care. Caring for the Ages. 2004;5(12):38-48.
 
Smucker WD, Aronow WS, Bob H, et al. Antithrombotic Therapy in the Long-Term Care Setting. LTC Physician Information Tool Kit Series. Columbia, MD: American Medical Directors Association; 2006.
 
Deep venous thrombosis in the nursing home clinical practice guideline. Elder Medical Services P. C. website. http://www.ltcpractice.com/content/node-6/clinicians/dvt1.htm. Accessed October 24, 2013.
 
Leibson CL, Petterson TM, Smith CY, Bailey KR, Ashrani AA, Heit JA. Venous thromboembolism in nursing home residents: role of selected risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(9):1718-1723. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Arpaia G, Ambrogi F, Penza M, et al. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients nursed at home or in long-term care residential facilities. Int J Vasc Med. 2011;2011:305-327.
 
US Department of Health and Human Services. Minimum Data Set, version 2.0. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/NursingHomeQualityInits/downloads/MDS20MDSAllForms.pdf. Accessed October 24, 2013.
 
Melton LJ III. History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc. 1996;71(3):266-274. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heit JA. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(3):370-372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heit JA, Silverstein MD, Mohr DN, Petterson TM, O’Fallon WM, Melton LJ III. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(6):809-815. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gross JS, Neufeld RR, Libow LS, Gerber I, Rodstein M. Autopsy study of the elderly institutionalized patient. Review of 234 autopsies. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148(1):173-176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Yawn BP, Melton LJ III, Rocca WA. Use of a medical records linkage system to enumerate a dynamic population over time: the Rochester epidemiology project. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(9):1059-1068. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Melton LJ III. The threat to medical-records research. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(20):1466-1470. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jacobsen SJ, Xia Z, Campion ME, et al. Potential effect of authorization bias on medical record research. Mayo Clin Proc. 1999;74(4):330-338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leibson CL, Ransom JE, Brown RD, O’Fallon WM, Hass SL, Whisnant JP. Stroke-attributable nursing home use: a population-based study. Neurology. 1998;51(1):163-168. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leibson CL, Tosteson AN, Gabriel SE, Ransom JE, Melton LJ. Mortality, disability, and nursing home use for persons with and without hip fracture: a population-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(10):1644-1650. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown RD Jr, Ransom J, Hass S, et al. Use of nursing home after stroke and dependence on stroke severity: a population-based analysis. Stroke. 1999;30(5):924-929. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hass SL, Ransom JE, Brown RD Jr, O’Fallon WM, Whisnant JP, Leibson CL. The impact of stroke on the cost and level of care in nursing homes: a retrospective population-based study. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76(5):493-500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Samama MM. An epidemiologic study of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in medical outpatients: the Sirius study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(22):3415-3420. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Smeeth L, Cook C, Thomas S, Hall AJ, Hubbard R, Vallance P. Risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after acute infection in a community setting. Lancet. 2006;367(9516):1075-1079. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Clayton TC, Gaskin M, Meade TW. Recent respiratory infection and risk of venous thromboembolism: case-control study through a general practice database. Int J Epidemiol. 2011;40(3):819-827. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Schmidt M, Horvath-Puho E, Thomsen RW, Smeeth L, Sørensen HT. Acute infections and venous thromboembolism. J Intern Med. 2012;271(6):608-618. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
St Sauver JL, Grossardt BR, Leibson CL, Yawn BP, Melton LJ III, Rocca WA. Generalizability of epidemiological findings and public health decisions: an illustration from the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(2):151-160. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare website. http://www.dartmouthatlas.org/. Accessed October 24, 2013.
 
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