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Rupal J. Shah, MD; Jason D. Christie, MD
Author and Funding Information

From the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Correspondence to: Rupal J. Shah, MD, MS, University of Pennsylvania, Pulmonary and Critical Care, 3400 Spruce St, 824 W Gates, Philadelphia, PA 19104; e-mail: rupal.shah@uphs.upenn.edu


Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST that no potential conflicts of interest exist with any companies/organizations whose products or services may be discussed in this article.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2014;145(1):193. doi:10.1378/chest.13-2226
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To the Editor:

We thank Dr Mao and colleagues for their insightful comments and the opportunity to clarify a number of points from our work.1 Although we considered inclusion of additional risk variables into the latent class analysis model,1 we chose to use time changes in primary graft dysfunction (PGD) grade only to derive our classes for several reasons. First, we sought to address controversy surrounding PGD phenotypes encompassed within the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation definition based on timing of clinical PGD development.2,3 Second, we did not have a large enough sample size to include all known risk factors for PGD in the model and generate stable classes. Third, using grade alone to derive the classes allowed us to demonstrate construct validity of the resultant PGD phenotypes using many of the known clinical risk factors for PGD and mortality.

We have previously published on clinical risk factors in PGD.4 In the current study, we evaluated which of these many risk factors would distinguish between the classes. We agree that recipient BMI, for example, remains an important risk factor for PGD5; however, differences in BMI did not help distinguish between those patients who will recover from injury quickly and those with persistent injury. The factors we identified, including volume of blood transfusion and cardiopulmonary bypass use, may be helpful in identifying those who are at risk for graft dysfunction persisting on day 3 as well as identifying potential mechanistic links to the persistent PGD phenotype.

In the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort study, subjects receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for graft dysfunction are classified as having grade 3 PGD. Therefore, we do not believe the use of ECMO in this study created a misclassification bias by making it appear that subjects recovered from PGD when they did not. Additionally, only one subject in this cohort was on ECMO 72 h after transplantation, so we do not think there was significant contribution from the use of ECMO.

Although our analyses generated classes that differed in time of resolution, we did include all subjects with grade 3 PGD at any time. The latent class model best defined classes based on resolution of lung injury, but classes based on development of injury were less apparent. However, had a class of late-onset injury been common, we believe our model would have identified this pattern. We limited our study to PGD within 72 h, as that is the commonly accepted definition,2 although certainly lung injury can occur at later time points.

References

Shah RJ, Diamond JM, Cantu E, et al. Latent class analysis identifies distinct phenotypes of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Chest. 2013;144(2):616-622. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Christie JD, Carby M, Bag R, Corris P, Hertz M, Weill D; ISHLT Working Group on Primary Lung Graft Dysfunction. Report of the ISHLT Working Group on Primary Lung Graft Dysfunction part II: definition. A consensus statement of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(10):1454-1459. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Oto T, Levvey BJ, Snell GI. Potential refinements of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation primary graft dysfunction grading system. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(5):431-436. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Diamond JM, Lee JC, Kawut SM, et al. Clinical risk factors for primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(5):527-534. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lederer DJ, Kawut SM, Wickersham N, et al; Lung Transplant Outcomes Group. Obesity and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group Obesity Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(9):1055-1061. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 

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Tables

References

Shah RJ, Diamond JM, Cantu E, et al. Latent class analysis identifies distinct phenotypes of primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Chest. 2013;144(2):616-622. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Christie JD, Carby M, Bag R, Corris P, Hertz M, Weill D; ISHLT Working Group on Primary Lung Graft Dysfunction. Report of the ISHLT Working Group on Primary Lung Graft Dysfunction part II: definition. A consensus statement of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005;24(10):1454-1459. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Oto T, Levvey BJ, Snell GI. Potential refinements of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation primary graft dysfunction grading system. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2007;26(5):431-436. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Diamond JM, Lee JC, Kawut SM, et al. Clinical risk factors for primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187(5):527-534. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lederer DJ, Kawut SM, Wickersham N, et al; Lung Transplant Outcomes Group. Obesity and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation: the Lung Transplant Outcomes Group Obesity Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;184(9):1055-1061. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
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