Time-consuming methods for searching, cataloging, and citing scientific literature made early referencing exhausting. Traditionally, the paradigm followed in directing a literature search was a Sisyphusian task. Mead and Berryman4 described the traditional process, which began with MEDLINE, which led to a reference management program, which, in turn, led to a word-processing program, which, in turn, led back to MEDLINE to start the cycle again. These licensed software programs, such as early versions of EndNote, provided researchers with non-web-based personal libraries centered primarily on local desktops. Metadata were stored in reference format using rudimentary software programs, without the ability to use the data further. Although these programs were capable of creating bibliographies, they had limitations when it came to more advanced functions. Scientists were unable to easily retrieve and share the information stored on their desktops or collaborate with other experts in their fields. As funding in research and development continued to expand over the past 50 years, the proliferation of scientific publications made it essential to devise an instrument to conveniently search, store, retrieve, and share literature.