Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts: Dr Klompas received grant support from the CDC, US Food and Drug Administration, and the Office of the National Co-ordinator for Health IT. Dr Balk received grant support from the CDC and bioMérieux for participation in the EPIC CAP study (CDC) and the Procalcitonin in ICU antibiotic stewardship study (CDC and bioMérieux). Dr Deutschman received grant support from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences. Dr Diekema received grant support from Merck, Cerexa, bioMériuex, PurThread Technologies, and Pfizer. Dr Klompas received support for travel from the CDC, Society of Healthcare Epidemiologists of America, Association of Professionals in Infection Control, and the Duke University Infection Control Outreach Network. Dr Balk received support for travel from the CDC and Critical Care Societies Collaborative. Dr Burns received support for travel from the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN; meeting unrelated to this study). Drs Deutschman and Lipsett received support for travel from the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Ms Greene received support for travel from the Department of Health and Human Services/CDC. Ms Greene consults for INC. Dr Hess consulted for Philips Respironics, ResMed, Pari, and Breathe and received honorarium from Covidien and Maquet. Ms Greene lectured for Premier, Advanced Sterilization Products, and APIC. Dr Burns lectured for AACN (annual national conference). Ms Greene presented speeches for Covidien and Maquet. Dr Septimus received an honorarium for a lecture. Dr Klompas received support from the Society of Healthcare Epidemiologists of America for the development of educational presentations. Ms Greene is employed by the Rochester General Hospital. Dr Lipsett has board membership with the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Dr Deutschman received a stipend for his Presidency with the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Dr Deutschman received royalties from Elsevier for the textbook, Evidence-based Practice of Critical Care Medicine. Dr Burns receives royalties from McGraw-Hill for books endorsed by AACN. Ms Greene receives royalties from Up-To-Date, Jones and Bartlett, and McGraw-Hill. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.