Executive function is exceedingly important for the traveler, particularly the business traveler who must rely on higher-order cognitive function to solve and respond to complex problems. According to Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, executive functions include “volition (i.e., formulation of a goal, motivation to achieve the goal, and awareness of one’s own ability to achieve the goal), planning, purposive action (response selection and initiation, maintenance, switching, and stopping), and execution, which involves self-monitoring and self-correction as well as control of the spatiotemporal aspects of the response.”22 In an excellent review of the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation, Killgore23 suggests that consistent results in experimental data on executive tasks are lacking, likely due to differentially affected regions of the brain following sleep deprivation and the complexity of the cognitive processes studied. For example, deductive reasoning appears to not be affected by sleep deprivation, whereas innovative thinking is likely affected (ie, fewer original ideas and increased response redundancy). Risk taking and decision-making are likely affected by sleep deprivation, which may have dire consequences in the business traveler who is sleep deprived. Subjects who were sleep deprived for 49.5 h demonstrated significantly higher risk taking in the Iowa Gambling Task when compared with baseline levels.24 Although the exact mechanism is unknown, subjects in this study demonstrated findings similar to those with lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may be a target in sleep-deprived individuals. Additionally, sleep deprivation may increase risk-taking behavior by precipitating hypomania or mania in susceptible individuals.25 Although there is still much to be worked out regarding sleep deprivation and executive function, it is clear that sleep-deprived individuals may act differently in the sleep-deprived state, which may ultimately be disadvantageous.