In 1999, a Consensus Development Panel of the National Institutes of Health3 estimated that approximately 300,000 annual hospital admissions for TBI occur annually in the United States and that from 70,000 to 90,000 patients with TBI have long-term, substantial loss of function. The incidence of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest in the United States was estimated at approximately 300,000 people by McNally and colleagues4 in 2011. Merchant and colleagues5 estimated the incidence of in-hospital arrest to be 200,000 in the same year. Girotra and colleagues6 recently reported that although 22% of patients who experience in-hospital arrest and resuscitation survived until discharge in 2012, an improvement since 2000, 28% of the survivors still suffer significant neurologic disability. Approximately 14,000 to 35,000 American adults and children were believed to be vegetative by Strauss and colleagues7 in 2000, a year in which the prevalence of minimally conscious adult and pediatric patients was between 112,000 and 280,000. The economic cost of these patients is difficult to determine because their exact number is uncertain and because they are cared for in a variety of facilities. Nevertheless, the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel3 estimated that the direct lifetime costs of care for a patient with severe TBI ranged from $600,000 to $1,875,000 in 1999 dollars.