Toward the end of the 1990s, we had a young man in the ICU who was a survivor of severe ARDS. He had spent weeks on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, he survived several episodes of septic shock, had multiple organ failure, and it took months to wean him off the ventilator. Given his severe course of illness, he had made an excellent recovery. He had no evidence of cognitive impairment, appeared to be oriented, and seemed to have some understanding of what had happened to him. He knew where he was and that his long-term prognosis was good. His family was happy and the relief that he survived his deadly illness was seen on their faces.