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Original Research: Critical Care |

Severity of Acute Kidney Injury and Two-Year Outcomes in Critically Ill PatientsAcute Kidney Injury and Long-term Mortality

Lior Fuchs, MD; Joon Lee, PhD; Victor Novack, MD, PhD; Yael Baumfeld, MD; Daniel Scott, PhD; Leo Celi, MD, MPH; Tal Mandelbaum, MD; Michael Howell, MD, MPH; Daniel Talmor, MD, MPH
Author and Funding Information

From the Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine (Drs Fuchs, Novack, Mandelbaum, and Talmor) and Department of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine (Drs Celi and Howell), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology (Drs Lee, Scott, and Celi), Cambridge, MA; School of Public Health and Health Systems (Dr Lee), University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada; and Clinical Research Center (Drs Novack and Baumfeld), Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Correspondence to: Lior Fuchs, MD, Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 1 Deaconess Rd, CC-470, Boston MA 02215; e-mail: liorfuchs@gmail.com


Funding/Support: The authors have reported to CHEST that no funding was received for this study.

Reproduction of this article is prohibited without written permission from the American College of Chest Physicians. See online for more details.


Chest. 2013;144(3):866-875. doi:10.1378/chest.12-2967
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Background:  The association between levels of acute kidney injury (AKI) during ICU admission and long-term mortality are not well defined.

Methods:  We examined medical records of adult patients admitted to a large tertiary medical center with no history of end-stage renal disease who survived 60 days from ICU admission between 2001 and 2007. Demographic, clinical, physiologic, and date of death data were extracted.

Results:  Among 15,048 patients, 12,399 (82.4%) survived 60 days from ICU admission and comprised the study population. AKI did not develop in 5,663 (45.7%) during ICU admission, whereas progressively severe levels of AKI as defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria AKIN 1, AKIN 2, and AKIN 3 developed in 4,589 (37.0%), 1,613 (13.0%), and 534 (4.3%), respectively. Only 42.5% of patients with AKIN 3 survived 2 years from ICU admission. Patients with AKIN 3 had a 61% higher mortality risk 2 years from ICU discharge compared with patients in whom AKI did not develop. Patients with AKIN 1 and AKIN 2 had similar increased mortality risk 2 years from ICU admission (hazard ratio, 1.26 and 1.28, respectively). The level of estimated glomerular filtration rate on ICU discharge and chronic kidney disease were associated with long-term mortality.

Conclusions:  Patients in whom AKI develops during ICU admission have significantly increased risks of death that extend beyond their high ICU mortality rates. These increased risks of death continue for at least 2 years after the index ICU admission.

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