As yet, there are no robust data to recommend the routine use of preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with lung cancer. There is, however, a growing body of evidence that suggests that preoperative conditioning may be advantageous.236‐238 In the National Emphysema Treatment Trial, all patients underwent pulmonary rehabilitation prior to randomization to either medical treatment or LVRS. Pulmonary rehabilitation provided important benefits in dyspnea, quality of life, and exercise ability.236 Weinstein et al237 demonstrated that a preoperative regimen was inversely proportional to patients’ length of stay. Bobbio et al238 demonstrated that their preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program resulted in an increase in O2max at the anaerobic threshold and that there was an increase in workload. Other data, however, are not as supportive, showing that cardiopulmonary performance is not significantly altered.239 Ultimately, the absence of randomized controlled trial data regarding preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation allows for only the suggestion that it will be beneficial to the patients undergoing it. In the postoperative setting, information is emerging that initiating an inpatient regimen following a lung resection is immediately beneficial for patients. These inpatient programs have been associated with improvements in exercise performance, symptoms, and pulmonary function tests (FEV1).240,241 Secondary gains, in the form of improved quadriceps strength, without improvements in objective exercise performance measures, have been found to occur with pulmonary rehabilitation programs.242 Improvements in exercise performance without any objective improvements in pulmonary function tests have also been observed with postoperative pulmonary rehabilitation.243 Even in the absence of a formalized rehabilitation program per se, planned ambulation within 4 h following a resection has been associated with improved oxygenation and lower external oxygen requirements.244 Although the data on pulmonary rehabilitation are difficult to quantify or standardize, what is available seems to confirm intuition that pulmonary rehabilitation following lung cancer surgery is of benefit to patients, albeit in differing forms.