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The Rib Spreader: A Chapter in the History of Thoracic Surgery FREE TO VIEW

E. A. Bonfils-Roberts
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Department of Surgery, St. Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center of New York, New York City

Chest. 1972;61(5):469-474. doi:10.1378/chest.61.5.469
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Our present-day surgical instruments—readily obtainable and readily replaceable when damaged by inexperienced hands—bring ease to the performance of many procedures and indeed are indispensable for some.

These facilities, however, were not present many years ago; and surgery then was limited, difficult, and risky, with the outcome much influenced by luck.

In the frequent use of the armamentarium made available to us by our predecessors, we should always remember that its development has required arduous thought, difficult experimentation, and long-continued effort.




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