This article is a review of the pertinent scientific data regarding obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as presented in the medical literature. Attention regarding the diagnosis of OSA focused on the debate regarding home testing as compared with in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG), with a surprising result of possibly more cost benefit from PSG. New advances abound in the treatment of OSA, including those directed at preventing pharyngeal collapsibility. Multiple studies reviewed the comparative effects of oral appliances in conjunction with CPAP, with little difference between the two noted, especially for mild OSA. Finally, a number of studies evaluated both risks of OSA and outcomes from the use of CPAP, including functional outcomes, direct cardiac benefits, and overall cardiac mortality.