Twenty-four to 25 participants enrolled in each 1-day, not-for-profit course. The teaching faculty comprised attending physicians (consultants) and fellows in pleural diseases and thoracic radiologists. The lectures covered pathologic conditions (including case-based discussions), ultrasound physics, governance, and machine care (Table 1). Practical sessions allowed scanning of patients with pleural diseases and homemade phantom-based stations that simulated pleural and lymph node intervention (e-Appendix 1). Of 146 participants, the distribution of seniority was 62% for specialist registrars or year 3+ specialty trainees (senior residents and fellows), 26% for consultants and associate specialists (attending physicians), 10% for year 1 and 2 specialty trainees (junior residents), 1% for foundation year 1 and 2 physicians (interns), and 1% for nurses.