Ultimately, HAP is a problem of poverty and global inequality of access to clean energy. There is cause for optimism, however, as there are other spheres in which technology has driven major positive change. For example, in the world of telecommunications, many of the poorest people in the world jumped straight from having nothing to using cell phones. Can we draw inspiration from this transformation and get people at the bottom of the energy ladder to the top quickly? Efficient-burning, fan-assisted biomass cookstoves (eg, BioLite [Biolite] and Philips Design stoves [Royal Philips Electronics]) with substantially lower smoke emissions than traditional fires or stoves are already available. These blower stoves have many advantages: They are cheaper, safer, faster, and more portable than gas, controllable like gas, and consume renewable fuels.56 The challenge of scale can be reached by motivated governments, industries, and nongovernmental organizations. As an example, Indonesia and its government-owned oil and gas company, Pertamina, helped almost 50 million households convert to clean liquefied petroleum gas gas stoves from 2007 to 2010. In Peru, the government has led a successful country-wide intervention campaign introducing half a million improved stoves for “a Peru without smoke.”57 The new generation of advanced stove and fuel technologies offers real opportunities to effect a step change in access to clean energy for communities who currently cook over open fires. Good evidence already exists that many of these new technologies are highly acceptable and desirable. The higher costs of obtaining these advanced stoves, while a disadvantage, can be reduced through economies of large-scale production, subsidies, capitalizing on the carbon-credit market, and offsetting some of the initial investment against reduced fuel consumption.