The biologic nature of COPD inflammation is not well understood and agents that inhibit inflammation in COPD are a major unmet need. However, a variety of agents that have the potential to be inhibitors of COPD inflammation are in various stages of development. Agents that have been approved for a non-COPD indication but that have potential for inhibiting COPD inflammation include the statins, some phosphodiesterase inhibitors, some long-acting β agonists, tiotropium bromide, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone, and various monoclonal antibodies. New molecular entities that are being developed specifically as antiinflammatory agents for COPD include a variety of chemokine receptor antagonists, inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, inhibitors of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and stem cells. Some other novel agents that are in preclinical or early clinical stages are mentioned.