Financial/nonfinancial disclosures: The authors have reported to CHEST the following conflicts of interest: Dr Wedzicha has received honoraria for lectures and/or for serving on advisory boards from Nycomed: a Takeda Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH, Pfizer Inc, Novartis AG, Bayer AG, Chiesi Ltd, Almirall, and Vectura Group plc and has obtained research grant funding for her department from Nycomed: a Takeda Company; GlaxoSmithKline plc; Chiesi Ltd; and Novartis AG. Dr Rabe has provided legal consultation services or expert witness testimony to AstraZeneca, Chiesi Ltd, Novartis AG, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, and GlaxoSmithKline plc. He has also received research funding from Altana Pharma AG, Novartis AG, AstraZeneca, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, and Nycomed: a Takeda Company. Drs Bredenbröker and Goehring and Ms Brose are employees of the study sponsor. Dr Martinez has participated on advisory boards in COPD development for Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd; Almirall; American Institutes for Research; AstraZeneca; Bayer AG; BoomCom, Inc. Forest Laboratories, Inc; GlaxoSmithKline plc; Ikaria; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc; MedImmune; Merck; Novartis AG; Nycomed: a Takeda Company; Pearl Therapeutics; Pfizer Inc; and Bayer HealthCare (formerly Schering AG). He has been a member of the steering committee for COPD studies sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline plc; Forest Laboratories, Inc; MPex, Pharmaceuticals, Inc; and Nycomed: a Takeda Company. He has participated in Food and Drug Administration mock panels for Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH and Forest Laboratories, Inc. The University of Michigan has received funds from Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH for a COPD study. Dr Martinez has served on speakers’ bureaus or in continuing medical education activities sponsored by the American College of Chest Physicians; the American Lung Association; Almirall; AstraZeneca; William Beaumont Hospital; Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH; the Center for Health Care Education; CME Incite; ePocrates; Forest Laboratories, Inc; the France Foundation; GlaxoSmithKline plc; Lovelace Foundation; MedEd; National Association for Continuing Education; Nycomed: a Takeda Company; Potomac Pharma Inc; Prescott Pharmaceuticals; Sanofi-Aventis; St. Luke’s Hospital; and UpToDate and has received royalties from Associates in Medical Marketing and Castle Connolly. Dr Calverley has served on the scientific advisory boards of AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Novartis AG, and Nycomed: a Takeda Company and has received research funding from AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim GmbH, GlaxoSmithKline plc, and Nycomed: a Takeda Company.