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A Case of Synchronous Lung Adenocarcinoma and Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Type FREE TO VIEW

Chi Young Jung, MD; Young June Jeon*, MD
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Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea

Chest. 2012;142(4_MeetingAbstracts):614A. doi:10.1378/chest.1389696
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SESSION TYPE: Cancer Global Case Report Posters

PRESENTED ON: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 at 01:30 PM - 02:30 PM

INTRODUCTION: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (extranodal MZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, also called MALT lymphoma, is a distinct subgroup of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). More than two thirds of primary pulmonary NHLs are extranodal MZLs but they account for less than 0.5% of all primary lung neoplasms. Only a few cases of simultaneous lung cancer and pulmonary extranodal MZL have been reported. Also, it is extremely rare that primary extranodal MZL occurs in the large airways. To our knowledge, only one case of lung cancer coexisting with extranodal MZL of the large airway has been reported. We report a case of synchronous lung adenocarcinoma and primary extranodal MZL of the left main bronchus.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 60-year old woman was referred to our hospital with a pulmonary nodule in the right upper lung seen on chest radiograph during a routine health checkup. She had never smoked. A chest radiograph showed a nodule in the right upper lung. A chest computed tomographic (CT) scan showed a peripherally located 2.4 × 1.8 cm sized solid nodule in the anterior segment of the right upper lobe. Fluorine 18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scan revealed abnormal FDG uptake in the right upper lobe lung nodule and in the right hilar lymph node. She underwent CT image-guided percutaneous core needle biopsy of the nodule in the right upper lobe. Additionally, a flexible bronchoscopic examination was performed to identify the endobronchial lesion. At bronchoscopy, a few small variable-sized protrusions were observed in the proximal left main bronchus and a biopsy was performed . The needle biopsy specimens of the right lung nodule showed non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CK7 and TTF-1, and negative for CK20. Histopathology of the bronchoscopic biopsy specimens of the left main bronchus lesions showed diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells beneath the mucosal epithelium. Immunohistochemical stains showed diffuse strong positive for CD20, and were negative for CKpan and CD10. The bronchial lesion was diagnosed as extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type. She underwent right upper lobectomy and lymph node dissection for the lung adenocarcinoma. However, she did not receive specialized therapy for extranodal MZL of the left main bronchus. Since then she has been observed regularly.

DISCUSSION: Synchronous primary malignancy and extranodal MZL in the same anatomical sites, such as stomach and lung is very unusual. To our knowledge, there is only one other report showing the coexistence of lung cancer and pulmonary extranodal MZL of the large airway. However, in that case, the histology of lung cancer was squamous cell carcinoma. The present case is the first report of the simultaneous occurrence of lung adenocarcinoma and pulmonary extranodal MZL of the large airway. The cause of the synchronous lesions in our case is uncertain. We postulate that a pulmonary extranodal MZL may coincide with a lung adenocarcinoma by accident. Little is known about the mechanism of the simultaneous occurrence of these different tumors. Moreover, the two different malignancies were located in different lungs in this case. However, other possible causes may include common etiologic factors and genetic or epigenetic alterations participating in the development of both the lung adenocarcinoma and extranodal MZL. Further studies will be required to clarify the relationship between lung adenocarcinoma and pulmonary extranodal MZL. It is necessary to accumulate more cases with both malignancies.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we report a unique case of pulmonary extranodal MZL of main bronchus coexisting with lung adenocarcinoma. The patient was asymptomatic and was diagnosed with pulmonary extranodal MZL by chance during investigation of an endobronchial lesion.

1) Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman JW. World Health Organization Classification of Tumors. Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid tissue. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2001.

DISCLOSURE: The following authors have nothing to disclose: Chi Young Jung, Young June Jeon

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Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea




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