Javaheri S, Smith J, Chung E. The prevalence and natural history of complex sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(3):205-211.
Lehman S, Antic NA, Thompson C, Catcheside PG, Mercer J, McEvoy RD. Central sleep apnea on commencement of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with a primary diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007;3(5):462-466.
Pusalavidyasagar SS, Olson EJ, Gay PC, Morgenthaler TI. Treatment of complex sleep apnea syndrome: a retrospective comparative review. Sleep Med. 2006;7(6):474-479.
Dernaika T, Tawk M, Nazir S, Younis W, Kinasewitz GT. The significance and outcome of continuous positive airway pressure-related central sleep apnea during split-night sleep studies. Chest. 2007;132(1):81-87.
Kuzniar TJ, Pusalavidyasagar S, Gay PC, Morgenthaler TI. Natural course of complex sleep apnea—a retrospective study. Sleep Breath. 2008;12(2):135-139.
Yaegashi H, Fujimoto K, Abe H, Orii K, Eda S, Kubo K. Characteristics of Japanese patients with complex sleep apnea syndrome: a retrospective comparison with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Intern Med. 2009;48(6):427-432.
Morgenthaler TI, Kagramanov V, Hanak V, Decker PA. Complex sleep apnea syndrome: is it a unique clinical syndrome? Sleep. 2006;29(9):1203-1209.
Gilmartin GS, Daly RW, Thomas RJ. Recognition and management of complex sleep-disordered breathing. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2005;11(6):485-493.
Gay PC. Complex sleep apnea: it really is a disease. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):403-405.
Bitter T, Westerheide N, Hossain MS, et al. Complex sleep apnoea in congestive heart failure. Thorax. 2011;66(5):402-407.
Malhotra A, Bertisch S, Wellman A. Complex sleep apnea: it isn’t really a disease. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008;4(5):406-408.
Cassel W, Canisius S, Becker HF, et al. A prospective polysomnographic study on the evolution of complex sleep apnoea. Eur Respir J. 2011;38(2):329-337.
Thomas RJ, Mietus JE, Peng CK, et al. Differentiating obstructive from central and complex sleep apnea using an automated electrocardiogram-based method. Sleep. 2007;30(12):1756-1769.
Kuźniar TJ, Kovačević-Ristanović R, Freedom T. Complex sleep apnea unmasked by the use of a mandibular advancement device. Sleep Breath. 2011;15(2):249-252.
Avidan AY. The development of central sleep apnea with an oral appliance. Sleep Med. 2006;7(1):85-86.
Corcoran S, Mysliwiec V, Niven AS, Fallah D. Development of central sleep apnea after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2009;5(2):151-153.
Peker Y, Carlson J, Hedner J. Increased incidence of coronary artery disease in sleep apnoea: a long-term follow-up. Eur Respir J. 2006;28(3):596-602.
Milleron O, Pillière R, Foucher A, et al. Benefits of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment in coronary artery disease: a long-term follow-up study. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(9):728-734.
Lanfranchi PA, Braghiroli A, Bosimini E, et al. Prognostic value of nocturnal Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1999;99(11):1435-1440.
Bradley TD, Logan AG, Kimoff RJ, et al; CANPAP Investigators Continuous positive airway pressure for central sleep apnea and heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(19):2025-2033.
Douglas NJ, White DP, Weil JV, et al. Hypoxic ventilatory response decreases during sleep in normal men. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125(3):286-289.
Douglas NJ, White DP, Weil JV, Pickett CK, Zwillich CW. Hypercapnic ventilatory response in sleeping adults. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;126(5):758-762.
White DP, Douglas NJ, Pickett CK, Weil JV, Zwillich CW. Hypoxic ventilatory response during sleep in normal premenopausal women. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;126(3):530-533.
Wiegand L, Zwillich CW, White DP. Sleep and the ventilatory response to resistive loading in normal men. J Appl Physiol. 1988;64(3):1186-1195.
Joseph V, Pequignot JM, Van Reeth O. Neurochemical perspectives on the control of breathing during sleep. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2002;130(3):253-263.
Krimsky WR, Leiter JC. Physiology of breathing and respiratory control during sleep. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;26(1):5-12.
Eckert DJ, Jordan AS, Merchia P, Malhotra A. Central sleep apnea: pathophysiology and treatment. Chest. 2007;131(2):595-607.
Salloum A, Rowley JA, Mateika JH, Chowdhuri S, Omran Q, Badr MS. Increased propensity for central apnea in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181(2):189-193.
Narkiewicz K, van de Borne PJ, Pesek CA, Dyken ME, Montano N, Somers VK. Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 1999;99(9):1183-1189.
Badr MS, Grossman JE, Weber SA. Treatment of refractory sleep apnea with supplemental carbon dioxide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(2):561-564.
Horner RL, Rivera MP, Kozar LF, Phillipson EA. The ventilatory response to arousal from sleep is not fully explained by differences in CO(2) levels between sleep and wakefulness. J Physiol. 2001;534(pt 3):881-890.
Trinder J, Padula M, Berlowitz D, et al. Cardiac and respiratory activity at arousal from sleep under controlled ventilation conditions. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(4):1455-1463.
Younes M. Role of arousals in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169(5):623-633.
Xie A, Wong B, Phillipson EA, Slutsky AS, Bradley TD. Interaction of hyperventilation and arousal in the pathogenesis of idiopathic central sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(2):489-495.
Gleeson K, Zwillich CW, White DP. The influence of increasing ventilatory effort on arousal from sleep. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;142(2):295-300.
Brander PE, Soirinsuo M, Lohela P. Nasopharyngeal symptoms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Effect of nasal CPAP treatment. Respiration. 1999;66(2):128-135.
Nakazaki C, Noda A, Yasuda Y, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure intolerance associated with elevated nasal resistance is possible mechanism of complex sleep apnea syndrome [published online ahead of print August 10, 2011]. Sleep Breath. doi:10.1007/s11325-011-0570-5.
Ferguson KA, Ono T, Lowe AA, al-Majed S, Love LL, Fleetham JA. A short-term controlled trial of an adjustable oral appliance for the treatment of mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnoea. Thorax. 1997;52(4):362-368.
Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S, Chesson A, et al. The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events: Rules, Terminology, and Technical Specification.1st ed. Westchester, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2007.
Yamauchi M, Tamaki S, Yoshikawa M, et al. Differences in breathing patterning during wakefulness in patients with mixed apnea-dominant vs obstructive-dominant sleep apnea. Chest. 2011;140(1):54-61.
Badr MS, Toiber F, Skatrud JB, Dempsey J. Pharyngeal narrowing/occlusion during central sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol. 1995;78(5):1806-1815.
Onal E, Lopata M. Periodic breathing and the pathogenesis of occlusive sleep apneas. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;126(4):676-680.
Onal E, Lopata M, O’Connor T. Pathogenesis of apneas in hypersomnia-sleep apnea syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1982;125(2):167-174.
Warner G, Skatrud JB, Dempsey JA. Effect of hypoxia-induced periodic breathing on upper airway obstruction during sleep. J Appl Physiol. 1987;62(6):2201-2211.
Younes M, Ostrowski M, Thompson W, Leslie C, Shewchuk W. Chemical control stability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163(5):1181-1190.
Younes M, Ostrowski M, Atkar R, Laprairie J, Siemens A, Hanly P. Mechanisms of breathing instability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol. 2007;103(6):1929-1941.
Luo YM, Tang J, Jolley C, et al. Distinguishing obstructive from central sleep apnea events: diaphragm electromyogram and esophageal pressure compared. Chest. 2009;135(5):1133-1141.
Tkacova R, Niroumand M, Lorenzi-Filho G, Bradley TD. Overnight shift from obstructive to central apneas in patients with heart failure: role of PCO2 and circulatory delay. Circulation. 2001;103(2):238-243.
Tkacova R, Wang H, Bradley TD. Night-to-night alterations in sleep apnea type in patients with heart failure. J Sleep Res. 2006;15(3):321-328.
Loewen A, Ostrowski M, Laprairie J, et al. Determinants of ventilatory instability in obstructive sleep apnea: inherent or acquired? Sleep. 2009;32(10):1355-1365.
Allam JS, Olson EJ, Gay PC, Morgenthaler TI. Efficacy of adaptive servoventilation in treatment of complex and central sleep apnea syndromes. Chest. 2007;132(6):1839-1846.
Randerath WJ, Galetke W, Kenter M, Richter K, Schäfer T. Combined adaptive servo-ventilation and automatic positive airway pressure (anticyclic modulated ventilation) in co-existing obstructive and central sleep apnea syndrome and periodic breathing. Sleep Med. 2009;10(8):898-903.
Thomas RJ. Effect of added dead space to positive airway pressure for treatment of complex sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep Med. 2005;6(2):177-178.