PURPOSE: A smoking habit is maintained by psychological and physical dependence. We thought up a concept, “social nicotine dependence”, which contains psychological nicotine dependence, and developed “The Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND)” in 2003. The KTSND has ten questions with a total score of 30. In order to investigate the validity of the KTSND, we applied it to the employees of three hospitals.
METHODS: We delivered the KTSND to three hospitals and received answers from 269 respondents (74 from A Hospital, 129 from B Hospital, and 66 from C Hospital). They consisted of 61 smokers, 31 ex-smokers, and 177 non-smokers.
RESULTS: The total KTSND scores of 17.98 ± 4.97 (mean ± SD) for smokers were significantly higher than those of 12.19 ± 4.85 for ex-smokers, and 12.19 ± 5.33 for non-smokers. In regard to the subject matter of the questions, that is, “Tobacco is one of life’s pleasures”, “Smokers’ lifestyles may be respected”, “Smoking sometimes enriches people’s life”, “Tobacco has positive physical and mental effects”, “Tobacco has effects to relieve stress”, “Tobacco enhances the function of smokers’ brains”, “Doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking”, and “People can smoke at places where ashtrays are available”, smokers tended to answer positively (p<0.05). There was no significant difference among the three groups to the questions concerning “Smoking itself is a disease” and “Smoking is a part of culture”. With regard to the smokers, the KTSND scores showed significant differences among three hospitals, namely, 19.88 ± 4.41 for A Hospital, 18.64 ± 4.77 for B Hospital, and 16.04 ± 5.06 for C Hospital.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the KTSND well reflected the smoking status of the subjects and difference among hospitals on social cognition to smoking.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The KTSND has good possibilities to measure social and psychological nicotine dependence in various subjects.
DISCLOSURE: Chiharu Yoshii, None.