It is a great honor and pleasure for us to edit a new regular column on transparency in health care for CHEST. The focus of this column is broad and will include studies relevant to patient safety, commentaries, illustrative case reports, and case series that focus on patient safety, medical errors, and issues of transparency in health care. In this issue, we begin the series by publishing two articles on patient safety: one a commentary on the importance of transparency in health care from our senior Mayo colleagues, Drs. Swensen and Cortese,3and a case report by Boseila et al4 from Duisberg, Germany, of a medical error due to an incorrect diagnosis of an intrathoracic foreign body that turned out to be a GIA stapler line (US Surgical/Tyco Healthcare; Norwalk, CT) from a previous lung resection. Transparency in health care is such a fundamental part of quality health care that it is fitting that the lead article for this column addresses this important issue. Surely we cannot advance the science and art of medicine if we are not honest about our results in an open and reflective manner. The second article, a case report, illustrates several important concepts in medical error prevention. Medical errors often result from a series of events—the error chain—that come together in an unfortunate sequence that leads to a poor outcome. A single break in the sequence of events can often prevent the medical error. The authors simulated the error following the second thoracotomy by placing a GI anastomosis stapler line on the patient’s skin and repeating the chest radiograph.