An alternative approach is to fund large focused efforts aimed at populations rather than individuals. Three large sets of multifaceted interventions are currently in progress. The first initiative, Allies Against Asthma, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, includes coalitions in seven cities: Allies Against Pediatric Asthma in Puerto Rico; Consortium for Infant and Child Health in Hampton Roads, VA; the DC Asthma Coalition; Fight Asthma Milwaukee Allies; The King County Asthma Forum in Washington; The Long Beach Alliance for Children With Asthma in California; and The Philadelphia Allies Against Asthma Coalition. The second initiative, Controlling Asthma in American Cities, is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and includes coalitions in Philadelphia, New York City, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Richmond, Berkeley, and Chicago. The third initiative, funded by the Merck Childhood Asthma Network, includes coalitions from Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, and Puerto Rico. In all of these programs, coalitions of community organizations, academics, schools, and/or health-care providers are working to establish better linkages among institutions and individuals caring for children with asthma. Each group is approaching the problem somewhat differently, but activities include provider education, increased public awareness, training of community health educators, integration of institutional infrastructures, development of educational materials, enhanced community-wide education, and enhanced referral systems. Evaluation of the programs will be complex. Appropriate controls for community-level interventions are not clear, especially at a time when measures of asthma severity such as hospitalization rates are changing throughout the country. The benefits of increased education and improving linkages among large institutions caring for children with asthma may not be obvious for several years. Separating effects of individual and joint interventions will provide additional challenges. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the problem and the complexity of issues facing low-income communities demand that we expand our approaches to deal with asthma in a cohesive and innovative manner. The evolution of the Community Asthma Prevention Program (CAPP) in Chicago highlights some of the issues facing our cities and the importance of community-driven projects in addressing those issues.